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摘要:中国传统文化孝Chinese traditional culture -- Filial piety Since ancient times, the traditional China has taken Xiao (obedience within the family) as an unshakeable moral standard. In this report, I will discuss why filial piety was essential to......

中国传统文化——孝 Chinese traditional culture -- Filial piety

Since ancient times, the traditional China has taken Xiao (obedience within the family) as an unshakeable moral standard. In this report, I will discuss why filial piety was essential to rulers, how they acted to strengthen Xiao’s status and their possible solution when service to the family conflicted service to the state.

From a family’s view, “bond” was an important word in China. Traditional Chinese were inclined to tighten their family bonds and fought against any attempt of splitting their families. Furthermore, Confucian interpreted the whole state as a family and every member should bond together when disputes and wars with other countries arose, which obviously met the ruling class’ need. So, to construct a harmonious society, the first step that the ruling class took was to promote ideologies that our country was a big family where we shared interests and losses, using Confucianism as a weapon. 

Next, we have to understand what Xiao represented in Chinese dynasties. From a modern view, we may expect Xiao to be no more than kindly taking care of our parents. Yet, the definition of Xiao in a premodern China was more rigorous and demanding, and traditional Chinese rulers had broadened this concept into politics through all sorts of measures, which made it even more complex. That was, societies at that time promoted that one should never show any signs of noncompliance to the elder and always stay loyal to his emperor. In this way, dynasties, like Han, Ming and Qing, all harmonized the devotion within a family together with that within the state.

自古以来,传统的中国就把孝(家庭内的服从)作为一种不可动摇的道德标准。在这个报告中,我将讨论为什么孝道对统治者来说是至关重要的,他们如何加强孝的地位,以及当孝道对家庭的服务与对国家的服务相冲突时他们可能的解决方案。
 
从一个家庭的角度来看,“纽带”在中国是一个很重要的词。传统的中国人倾向于加强家庭关系,反对任何分裂家庭的企图。而且,儒家把整个国家理解为一个大家庭,当与其他国家发生纠纷和战争时,每个成员都应该团结在一起,这显然满足了统治阶级的需要。所以,为了构建一个和谐的社会,统治阶级采取的第一步就是以儒家思想为武器,宣扬我们国家是一个利益同甘共苦的大家庭的意识形态。
 
接下来,我们要了解孝在中国各朝代中所代表的意义。从现代的观点来看,我们可能期望肖只是善意地照顾我们的父母。然而,前现代中国对“笑”的定义更加严格和苛刻,中国的传统统治者通过各种手段将“笑”的概念扩大到政治领域,使得“笑”的定义更加复杂。也就是说,当时的社会提倡人们永远不要对长辈表现出任何不服从的迹象,永远要忠于他的皇帝

Such an characteristic was called the parallel conception of society, which was pervasive in Confucianism. The system of Confucianism covered almost every part of our daily life, from eating manners to moral requirements, from domestic education to diplomatic issues. It acted as a textbook when it came to proper manners of a gentleman and a powerful state.

Another important factor of Confucianism’s popularity occurred in the Later Han Dynasty, when a famous successor of Confucianism, Dong Zhongshu, equaled the imperial power to “the supreme ultimate”, which undoubtedly catered to the need of the emperor. Thus, ever since Han dynasty, the governments had endeavored to develop Confucianism. The reason why it overruled almost every period since Han was that it highly fulfilled the ruler’s need of establishing an easy-to-rule state.

When it came to the priority of filial issues, many people may put forward a question: what if the interest of one’s father conflicted with that of the Emperor. To answer this problem, we have to uncover the real aim of constructing a filial-obedience-dominated society. As we know from those collected history materials, the image of the ruling class was usually depicted as a noble man who sincerely listened to every word of his parents. That’s because such a glamorous figure would effectively convince his subjects to respect and support him. Secondly, Xiao and Ti were vital standards in acquiring a satisfying official career. If we compared the imperial examination to be a single-plank bridge, Xiao and Ti would mean to open up a brand new way to earn a career. If one devoted all his life to serve the elderly and managed to make his story well-known, he would save a lot of time preparing for those tedious examinations and get a direct ticket to serve his country. For these reasons, filial obedience became the mainstream.
 
这种特点被称为“平行社会观”,在儒家思想中十分普遍。儒家思想几乎涵盖了我们日常生活的方方面面,从饮食礼仪到道德要求,从国内教育到外交事务。当谈到一个绅士和一个强大国家的得体举止时,它就像一本教科书。
 
儒学盛行的另一个重要因素发生在汉末,著名的儒学继承者董仲书将皇权等同于“至高境界”,这无疑迎合了皇帝的需要。因此,从汉代开始,政府就努力发展儒家思想。它之所以能够推翻自汉以来的几乎所有时期,是因为它极大地满足了统治者建立一个易于统治的国家的需要。
 
当谈到孝顺的首要问题时,很多人可能会提出这样一个问题:如果父亲的利益与皇帝的利益发生冲突怎么办?要解决这一问题,就必须揭示构建“filialpha -顺服型社会”的真正目的。从收集的历史资料中我们知道,统治阶级的形象通常被描绘成一个认真倾听父母每句话的贵族形象。这是因为这样一个富有魅力的人物会有效地说服他的臣民尊重和支持他。其次,“孝”和“悌”是获得满意仕途的重要标准。如果我们把科举比作一座独木桥,萧和提就意味着开辟了一条崭新的职业道路。如果一个人把他的一生奉献给老人,并使他的故事为人所知,他就可以节省大量的时间准备那些繁琐的考试,从而得到一张直接的票去报效他的国家。由于这些原因,孝顺成为主流。
 
Besides, the ruling class had utilized the concept of Xiao to foster absolute obedient minds. The emperors believed that a man who complied with his elders would be easier to govern, and then orders could be taken more effectively. To realize this assumption, the whole society was immersed in stories like the 24 stories of filial piety. These stories exaggeratedly elaborated how children should dedicate all their time, even their heirs and lives, to meet some unreasonable requirement of their parents. They were popular for its impressive plots and touching family bonds. Children grew up under this environment would never say no to any order of their elders, superiors and the Emperor.

In addition, death was a majestic event in Chinese society. It involved a series of a complicated funeral, mourning and periodical tomb-visitings. I think it was the time when conflict between devotion to families and dedication to the state appeared. Most bereaved officials may ask for a chance to quit and go back to their hometown to express their Xiao and love to the deceased by standing as guards at the bier and looking after funeral events. Unwilling to break an obedient circumstance, the Emperor usually temperately accepted his officer’s resignation and called him back shortly after the funeral came to an end. Then, the sheep-like officer had no choice but to take the offer to avoid cruel punishment, and his retirement ended as well. Acts like this though may arouse frustration to some extent, the rulers usually took out a considerable amount of gold and other rewards as a compensation for their loyalty and filial piety. Through a combination of forceful orders and gentle remedy, the Emperor kept his faithful subordinates without violating filial piety.
 
此外,统治阶级还利用“孝”思想来培养绝对服从的思想。皇帝们认为,服从长辈的人更容易统治,这样命令就能更有效地执行。为了实现这一假设,整个社会都沉浸在《二十四孝》这样的故事中。这些故事夸张地阐述了孩子们应该如何奉献他们所有的时间,甚至他们的继承人和生命,以满足他们的父母一些不合理的要求。它们因其令人印象深刻的情节和感人的家庭关系而广受欢迎。在这种环境下长大的孩子,对长辈、上级和皇帝的任何命令,都不会说不。
 
此外,死亡是中国社会的一件大事。它包括一系列复杂的葬礼、哀悼和定期的扫墓。我想正是在这个时候,对家庭的奉献和对国家的奉献之间产生了矛盾。大多数失去亲人的官员可能会要求辞职,然后回到家乡,在灵柩前站岗,照料葬礼活动,向逝者表达他们的孝和爱。由于不愿打破这种顺从的局面,皇帝通常会温和地接受他的军官的辞呈,并在葬礼结束后不久将他召回。于是,这位像羊一样的军官不得不接受这个提议,以避免残酷的惩罚,他的退休生涯也结束了。这样的行为虽然在一定程度上可能会引起挫败感,但统治者通常会拿出相当数量的黄金和其他奖励,作为对忠诚和孝道的补偿。通过强令和温和的救济相结合,皇帝保持了忠实的部下而不违背孝道。
 

Except from Confucianism and funerals, dynasties like Ming Dynasty also emphasized women’s education. Books, such as Ban Zhao’s Admonitions for Women and Song Ruozhao’s Analects for Women made detailed explanation on female’s proper behaviors in an orthodox society. These works were widely read in every family who hoped their daughters to be regarded as virtuous and sensible woman. It hogtied women’s behavior from eating, serving husband and parents-in-law to ritual decorum, which could be called an encyclopedia of female manners. Perhaps due to its thorough elaboration, it locked women’s mind in a tiny frame without any space for free thoughts. I could sense how the orthodox ideologies rooted in traditional Chinese women’s minds when reading their poets and other works in premodern China.

除了儒家思想和丧葬,明代等朝代也十分重视妇女的教育。班昭的《女训》、宋若昭的《论语》等著作对女性在正统社会中的行为举止作了详细的阐述。这些作品被每个希望自己的女儿成为贤惠懂事的女人的家庭广泛阅读。它将女性的饮食、侍奉丈夫、公婆等行为捆绑在礼仪之中,堪称一部女性礼仪百科全书。也许是由于它的详尽阐述,它把女性的心灵禁锢在一个狭小的框架里,没有任何自由思想的空间。在阅读前现代中国的诗人和其他作品时,我能感受到根植于中国传统女性内心的正统意识形态。

In this way, the government “produced” wives and mothers of similar values and behaviors and thus indirectly took the development of each family within its domain in control. 通过这种方式,政府“生育”了价值观和行为方式相似的妻子和母亲,从而间接地带动了每个家庭在其控制范围内的发展。

In traditional China, each dynasty aimed to maintain a stable and prosperous social environment. Xiao issue, as a respectful quality, was especially stressed and became a powerful tool to establish a group of loyal and obedient officers by marking itself as a valuable standard in selecting officials. At the same time, the Emperors turned to Confucianism to prove its supreme status over anyone else in the world. Even if a useful subordinate resigned from his current post to carry out his responsibilities of filial piety when the Emperor could always use carrot and stick to ensure his advantage in conflicts like this. At the same time, a tiny but significant female power was raised up after continuous ethical nurture, which served to ensure a stable country by maintaining domestic peace first.

在传统的中国,每个朝代都以维持稳定繁荣的社会环境为目标。摘要“孝”作为一种受人尊敬的品质,尤其受到重视,并成为建立一群忠臣的有力工具。与此同时,皇帝转向儒家学说,以证明它在世界上比任何人都高的地位。即使一个有用的下属辞职去履行他的孝道职责,皇帝总是可以使用胡萝卜和大棒来确保他在这样的冲突中的优势。与此同时,通过不断的伦理培育,一个微小而重要的女性力量得以崛起,以维护国内和平为首要保障国家的稳定。

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