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摘要:古巴导弹危机Cuban Missile Crisis This article mainly describes that during the war, due to political instability, political friction, the struggle between political parties, the cold war between big powers, and the gradual increase of military f......

古巴导弹危机  Cuban Missile Crisis

This article mainly describes that during the war, due to political instability, political friction, the struggle between political parties, the cold war between big powers, and the gradual increase of military forces, the Cuban missile crisis gradually formed, which became a historic event in the cold War era.

这篇文章主要描述了在战争期间,由于各国政局不稳定,政治摩擦,政党之间的斗争,大国之间冷战,慢慢增加军事力量而慢慢形成古巴导弹危机,成为冷战时代的一个历史性事件。

The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Events Before, During, and After Let the record show that our restraint is not inexhaustible. Should it ever appear that the inter-American doctrine of noninterference merely conceals or excuses a policy of nonaction - if the nations of this hemisphere should fail to meet their commitments against outside Communist penetration - then I want it clearly understood that this Government will not hesitate in meeting its primary obligations, which are to the security of our Nation. Should the time ever come, we do not intend to be lectured on " intervention " by those whose character was stamped for all time on the bloody streets of Budapest. ( Address by President Kennedy, 20 April 1961, " The Lesson of Cuba, " Department of State Publication No. 7185. )

During the post World War II years, the United States was involved in a continuing conflict with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The differences in democratic and communistic views led to most of this struggle. Although there was no direct military conflict, a climax of military tension was reached during the Cuban Missile Crisis. What exactly happened and what were the causes and effects of this historical event filled with diplomatic as well as militarial tension' In order to fully understand the Cuban Missile Crisis, the events previous to it must be established as they were extremely relevant to the situation. Prior to the twentieth century, Americans had a favorable relationship with the Russians. However, in the late nineteenth century, c. 1890, America and Russia began to disagree and quarrel over certain situations and questions that arose over Asia. This point in history can be labeled as the " beginning " of our feud with Russia ( Cold War Encarta ). Relations began to become troubled at this point, but there was hope for possible resolution. Unfortunately, in 1917 a group of people known as Communists seized power of the government in Russia and established the Soviet Union. The Communists' primary political party was called the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks wanted very much to propagate their ideas to small and new countries in Asia and in Europe. However, capitalistic nations in the west also wanted to spread their political views. Due to this clash in political beliefs, the Bolsheviks, and the rest of the Soviet Union, declared " ideological war " on all capitalistic nations. In retaliation, the United States did not recognize the U.S.S.R as a nation until 1933 ( Encarta ).

古巴导弹危机:之前、期间和之后的事件让记录表明,我们的克制不是取之不尽的。应该出现过美洲干涉主义仅仅隐藏或借口的政策行动——如果这个半球的国家应该不符合他们的承诺反对共产主义渗透外,那么我希望它清楚地明白,这届政府将毫不犹豫地履行主要义务,这是我们国家的安全。如果时机到来,我们不打算听那些在布达佩斯血腥的街道上永远打上烙印的人就“干预”进行说教。(肯尼迪总统讲话,1961年4月20日,“古巴的教训”,国务院第7185号出版物)
 
 
 
在第二次世界大战后的几年里,美国卷入了与苏联社会主义共和国联盟的持续冲突中。民主主义和共产主义观点的不同导致了这场斗争。虽然没有直接的军事冲突,但在古巴导弹危机期间,军事紧张达到了高潮。究竟发生了什么,这一充满外交和军事紧张局势的历史事件的原因和影响是什么?’为了充分理解古巴导弹危机,必须确定之前发生的事件,因为它们与当时的形势极其相关。在二十世纪之前,美国与俄国人有着良好的关系。然而,在19世纪末,大约1890年,美国和俄罗斯开始在亚洲出现的某些情况和问题上产生分歧和争吵。历史上的这一点可以被称为我们与俄罗斯不和的“开始”(冷战电子百科全书)。此时,两国关系开始出现问题,但仍有解决的希望。不幸的是,1917年,一群共产党人夺取了俄罗斯政府政权,建立了苏联。共产党的主要政党被称为布尔什维克。布尔什维克非常想把他们的思想传播到亚洲和欧洲的新兴小国。然而,西方的资本主义国家也想传播他们的政治观点。由于这种政治信仰上的冲突,布尔什维克和苏联其他国家向所有资本主义国家发起了“意识形态战争”。作为报复,美国直到1933年才承认苏联为一个国家(Encarta)。
 

In 1920, a new leader, Joseph Stalin, became head of the Communist Party. Stalin did not want to make a truce with the United States, but he did decide to join World War II. The Soviet Union suffered considerable damage, but fought successfully with the other allies and eventually defeated Hitler. In post - World War II, this alliance began to wither as mistrust and tension grew between Stalin and President Truman, thus giving birth to the Cold War. Opposition, broken promises, and a continuing struggle over who would unite Europe led the United States and the U.S.S.R even farther apart. Most believed that peace was not an option and war was inevitable for the two nations.

Although both countries were not keen on going to war, tension and stress of the Cold War was at its height ( Encarta ). In a sense, it can be said that the stage was set for a deciding conflict. Both the United States and the Soviet Union had been preparing for war by increasing their military power, which included nuclear capabilities. No one could be certain when or who was planning to attack first. The answer was soon to come. In September of 1962, various American intelligence agencies became flooded with reports which stated that the Russians were supplying and assembling surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missiles inside Cuba. When questioned, the Soviet Premier, Nikita Krushchev, denied that any missiles were being supplied to Cuba ( Abel p83 ). Most of these intelligence reports were unconfirmed, but later, after Air Force U-2 aircraft reconnaissance missions, it was established that Russia was indeed setting up missiles ( p91 ). One can state that Russia was only supplying the defense of one of its allies, but the cause for concern came from the short distance between Cuba and American soil ( Thompson p96 ). The closest American border was a mere 90 miles away from Cuba. If these missiles were to be launched, quite possibly with nuclear warheads, then it left almost half of the continental United States under a nuclear threat ( p97 ).

 
1920年,一位新的领导人约瑟夫·斯大林成为了共产党的领导人。斯大林并不想与美国休战,但他确实决定参加第二次世界大战。苏联遭受了相当大的损失,但成功地与其他盟国作战,并最终击败了希特勒。二战后,由于斯大林和杜鲁门总统之间的不信任和紧张关系加剧,这一联盟开始枯萎,从而导致了冷战。反对派、失信和关于谁将统一欧洲的持续斗争导致美国和苏联更加分裂。大多数人认为和平不是选择,战争对两国来说是不可避免的。
 
 
 
虽然两国都不热衷于战争,但冷战的紧张和压力正处于其顶峰(Encarta)。在某种意义上,可以说,一场决定性的冲突的舞台已经搭建好了。美国和苏联一直在通过增强包括核能力在内的军事力量为战争做准备。没有人能确定什么时候,谁计划先进攻。答案很快就出来了。1962年9月,美国各情报机构收到大量报告,说俄罗斯人正在古巴境内供应和装配地对空和地对地导弹。当被问及此事时,苏联总理尼基塔·赫鲁晓夫否认向古巴提供任何导弹(Abel p83)。这些情报报告大多未经证实,但后来,在空军U-2侦察机执行侦察任务后,俄罗斯确实在部署导弹(p91)这一事实得到证实。我们可以说,俄罗斯只是在为其盟友之一提供防御,但令人担忧的原因来自古巴和美国国土之间的短距离(Thompson p96)。美国最近的边境距离古巴只有90英里。如果这些导弹发射,很可能带有核弹头,那么它将使几乎一半的美国大陆处于核威胁之下(p97)。
 

During a September 13 press conference, President Kennedy announced the situation to America. He stated that intelligence reports of Russian shipments did not pose a serious threat to America or any of its allies at this time. He was quick to add, though, " that if Cuba were ever to become an offensive military base of significant capacity for the Soviet Union, then this country will do whatever must be done to protect its own security and that of its allies " ( Cook p24-25 ). " It is exciting to have a real crisis on your hands, when you have spent half your political life dealing with humdrum issues like the environment. " ( Margaret Thatcher on the Falklands campaign, 1982 ). It is uncertain on whether or not, Kennedy viewed the situation in front of him as exciting, but it was definitely about to excite his political career. A solution or option was needed so the Cuba situation could be addressed with hopefully no conflict. In early October, Kennedy met with advisers, know known as the Executive Committee of the National Security Council, to discuss possible options: invasion, air strikes, blockade, or diplomacy ( Cook p33 ). Kennedy made his decision and on October 22, 1962, he announced that American forces would install a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent the entrance of more Russian missiles ( p34 ). Kennedy reinforced his forcefulness by demanding to Krushchev that the Soviet Union dismantle and fully remove all missiles as well as other weapons. Kennedy also declared a " quarantine zone " around Cuba to more successfully allow American naval forces to either block or examine ships wanting to enter Cuban ports ( Trease p312 ).

 
在9月13日的一次新闻发布会上,肯尼迪总统向美国宣布了这一情况。他表示,有关俄罗斯货物的情报报告目前并未对美国或其任何盟友构成严重威胁。不过,他很快补充说,“如果古巴要成为苏联强大的进攻性军事基地,那么这个国家将采取一切必须采取的措施来保护自己和盟友的安全。”“当你花了一半的政治生活来处理像环境这样的无聊问题时,手头有一场真正的危机是令人兴奋的。(1982年,玛格丽特·撒切尔在马岛战役中的讲话)。肯尼迪是否认为他面前的形势令人兴奋还不确定,但它肯定会刺激他的政治生涯。需要一种解决办法或选择办法,以便能够在不发生冲突的情况下解决古巴局势。10月初,肯尼迪会见了被称为国家安全委员会执行委员会的顾问,讨论可能的选择:入侵、空袭、封锁或外交。1962年10月22日,肯尼迪做出了这个决定,他宣布美国军队将在古巴周围设置海上封锁,以防止更多的俄罗斯导弹进入古巴(p34)。肯尼迪向赫鲁晓夫要求苏联拆除并完全拆除所有导弹和其他武器,这进一步增强了他的力量。肯尼迪还宣布在古巴周围设立一个“隔离区”,以便美国海军能够更成功地阻止或检查想要进入古巴港口的船只(Trease p312)。
 

Although a naval blockade seemed the best option, the first few days after it was installed Soviet vessels continued on voyages to Cuba and successfully avoided quarantine zones. Krushchev appeared not to be bothered by the apparent aggression by the United States, but he did not strike. He and Kennedy continued to communicate through various diplomatic channels ( p325 ). This went on for a few days, almost like a well played game of chess. Each side was not acting until fully analyzing the others move. Then after seeing that Kennedy was not bluffing, Krushchev changed his position. On October 26, Krushchev sent a message to Washington and agreed to remove all missiles. He also wanted to open communication to negotiate other terms. Kennedy accepted the message and Krushchev's agreement. After negotiations, Krushchev offered and on-site inspection of Cuba in return for a promise not to invade Cuba. To this, Kennedy gladly accepted and discontinued the blockade ( Cook p77 ). It seemed both Russia and America were satisfied with the terms of the negotiations, but Fidel Castro, leader of Cuba, became angry due to excessive Soviet submission. He refused to permit an on-site inspection, but did promise never to accept and install offensive weapons in the future ( p78 ). Without the on-site inspection American leaders were still unsure whether or not missiles were being disassembled. Consequently, the United States was again forced to use aerial reconnaissance in order to make sure that the missile bases were in fact being disassembled. The crisis was over.
After such a close encounter of war, would it be possible for Russia and the United States to eventually declare peace' The answer was an unfortunate no. Due to his ineffective handling of the situation, Soviet Premier, Nikita Krushchev was ousted out of the government in 1964. The Soviet Union also became weaker when the Chinese broke their ties with Moscow and when restlessness began to occur in Eastern Europe. In this period of history, their was a great stride by new and smaller countries to move toward nationalism since it proved to be stronger than communism ( SIRS ). Meanwhile, while Russia was having its problems, the United States was again involved in a battle against communism. The Vietnam War was an extremely bloody and costly conflict for the United States. As a result of the large economic funds that were needed to support the war, America's economic superiority began to become challenged by countries such as Japan and West Germany. Something had to be done because a large amount of America's finance was still supplying military defense for a possible confrontation with Russia ( SIRS ). Russia was also experiencing similar economic dilemmas.

尽管海上封锁似乎是最好的选择,但在封锁实施后的最初几天,苏联船只继续航行到古巴,并成功地避开了隔离区。赫鲁晓夫似乎并没有被美国的明显侵略所困扰,但他并没有出手。他和肯尼迪继续通过各种外交渠道进行沟通(第325页)。这种情况持续了几天,几乎就像一场精彩的国际象棋比赛。双方在充分分析了对方的行动后才采取行动。看到肯尼迪不是在虚张声势,赫鲁晓夫改变了立场。10月26日,赫鲁晓夫向华盛顿发出信息,同意撤走所有导弹。他还想开放沟通,协商其他条款。肯尼迪接受了这封信,并得到了赫鲁晓夫的同意。经过谈判,赫鲁晓夫提出对古巴进行实地视察,以换取不入侵古巴的承诺。对此,肯尼迪欣然接受并停止了封锁(库克p77)。俄罗斯和美国似乎都对谈判的条件感到满意,但古巴领导人菲德尔•卡斯特罗(Fidel Castro)对苏联的过度屈服感到愤怒。他拒绝允许现场检查,但承诺今后绝不接受和安装攻击性武器(第78页)。在没有现场检查的情况下,美国领导人仍然不确定导弹是否被拆解。因此,美国再次被迫使用空中侦察,以确保导弹基地实际上已被拆除。危机结束了。
 
在经历了如此近距离的战争之后,俄罗斯和美国有可能最终宣布和平吗?答案很不幸,是否定的。由于对局势处理不力,苏联总理尼基塔·赫鲁晓夫在1964年被逐出了政府。随着中国断绝与莫斯科的关系,以及东欧开始出现动荡,苏联也变得越来越弱。在这一历史时期,他们是一个伟大的步伐,新的和较小的国家走向民族主义,因为它证明了比共产主义更强大(先生们)。与此同时,当俄罗斯陷入困境时,美国再次卷入了对抗共产主义的战争。对美国来说,越南战争是一场极其血腥和代价高昂的冲突。由于战争所需的大量经济资金,美国的经济优势开始受到日本和西德等国家的挑战。必须采取一些措施,因为大量的美国财政仍在为可能与俄罗斯发生的对抗提供军事防御(SIRS)。俄罗斯也经历了类似的经济困境。
 

In 1973, a solution was proposed by the two superpowers. They agreed to halt, not completely though, the financial fund draining arms race and agreed to slow their competitive rivalry in the Third World. This agreement lasted for a mere seven years due to the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet troops in 1980 ( SIRS ). There was only one last hope for resolution between the Soviet Union and the United States. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power and brought the views of a new and young generation with him. He and Reagan cut back on both of the superpower's presence in Europe and they also moderated their ideological differences.

In the early 1990's, due to the work of Gorbachev and the previous work of Reagan, the cold war finally ended in Europe. Non-communist governments were being elected, countries that were once divided were uniting, the arms race was almost totally halted, and perhaps the biggest threat to democracy, communism, was being discredited. These new ideas spread also into the Soviet Union. Not long after the cold war ended in Europe, there was a dramatic break up of communism in the Union of Soviet Socialists Republics. The U.S.S.R was broken up into many smaller, democratic nations. The threat of communism was over ( Encarta ). Some of the most trying times in our nation's history took place during those thirteen beautiful October days.

The Cuban Missile Crisis is probably this world's closest encounter to a full scale nuclear war. If it had not been for our strong president and the fearlessness of America as a whole, the world might be a drastically different place today. Thankfully, though, it is not and due to the almost non-existent threat of communism in today's world it will probably not radically change in the years to come. Bibliography: Abel, Elie. The Missile Crisis. New York City, New York: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1966. Cook, Fred. The Cuban Missile Crisis. New York City, New York: Franklin Watts Inc., 1972. " Cold War. " Encarta 1996: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. 1996. " Cuban Missile Crisis. " Encarta 1996: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. 1996. LaFeber, Walter. " Cold War. " Encarta 1996: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. 1996. Partington, Angela, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. Schulzinger, Robert. " The End of the Cold War. " OAH Magazine of History ( 1994 ): 13-18. SIRS CD-ROM. SIRS Inc. 1996. Trease, Geoffery. This is Your Century. New York City, New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World Inc., 1965.

 
1973年,两个超级大国提出了一个解决方案。他们同意停止(虽然不是完全停止)消耗军备竞赛的财政资金,并同意减缓他们在第三世界的竞争。由于苏联军队在1980年入侵阿富汗(先生们),这项协议只维持了7年。在苏联和美国之间,解决问题只有最后一个希望。1985年,米哈伊尔·戈尔巴乔夫上台,并带来了新一代和年轻一代的观点。他和里根都削减了超级大国在欧洲的存在,他们也缓和了意识形态的差异。
 
 
 
20世纪90年代初,由于戈尔巴乔夫和里根之前的工作,冷战终于在欧洲结束。非共产主义政府被选举出来,曾经分裂的国家重新团结起来,军备竞赛几乎完全停止,民主和共产主义面临的最大威胁可能是名誉扫地。这些新思想也传到了苏联。欧洲冷战结束后不久,苏联社会主义共和国联盟的共产主义出现了戏剧性的分裂。苏联分裂成许多较小的民主国家。共产主义的威胁结束了(Encarta)。我们国家历史上一些最艰难的时期就发生在那十三天美丽的十月里。
 
 
 
古巴导弹危机可能是世界上最接近全面核战争的一次遭遇。如果没有我们强有力的总统,没有美国人民的无畏,今天的世界可能会是一个完全不同的地方。不过,值得庆幸的是,这种情况并没有发生,而且由于当今世界几乎不存在共产主义的威胁,在未来几年内,这种情况可能不会发生根本变化。参考书目:亚伯,埃利。导弹危机。纽约:J.B. Lippincott公司,1966年。厨师,弗雷德。古巴导弹危机。纽约:富兰克林·瓦茨公司,1972年。“冷战”。" Encarta 1996:微软Encarta百科全书。微软公司。1996。“古巴导弹危机。" Encarta 1996:微软Encarta百科全书。微软公司。1996。LaFeber,沃尔特。“冷战”。" Encarta 1996:微软Encarta百科全书。微软公司。1996。安吉拉·帕廷顿主编,《牛津引语词典》。牛津:牛津大学出版社,1992。Schulzinger,罗伯特。“冷战的结束。OAH历史杂志(1994):第13-18页。SIRS cd - rom。众位Inc . 1996。Trease Geoffery。这是你们的世纪。纽约:哈考特、布雷斯和世界公司,1965年。
 

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