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摘要:文化相对主义Cultural relativism 下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Cultural relativism,文章讲述CR声称世界上没有任何单一且客观上正确的道德教义或行为。道德与由不同社会的经济,社会和......

文化相对主义 Cultural relativism

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Cultural relativism,文章讲述CR声称世界上没有任何单一且客观上正确的道德教义或行为。道德与由不同社会的经济,社会和环境因素决定的文化有关。 CR的论据首先基于人类学观察中的各种文化事实。这个研究领域告诉我们,不同的社会有不同的道德承诺。

CR claims that there is no single, objectively correct moral doctrine or undertaking in the world. Morality is related to cultures determined by the economic, social and environmental factors of different societies. CR's arguments are first based on various cultural facts in anthropological observations. What this field of study tells us is that different societies have different moral commitments.
 
Cultural relativism

CR claims that there is not any single and objectively right moral doctrines or conduct in the world. Morality is related to cultures determined by economic, social, and environmental factors of different societies. CR’s arguments are firstly based on a variety of cultural facts from Anthropological observations. This field of study tells us that different societies have different moral commitments. For instance, while people in one country eat the corps of the dead father, people in another country consider it to be horrible or ugly and burn or bury their ancestor’s corps instead. For another instance, while it is the right for women in the non-Islamic countries do decide their dressing, Islamic women are obligated to cover the body and face will thick veils. Otherwise, the latter would be condemned and punished. That’s to say, what is thought to be cultural and morally right in this society would be regarded as culturally and morally wrong in another society. There do exist the distinction between moral rightness and moral wrongness in every single society. However, people moral conceptions are not objectively right, since people in another society would hold different and even conflicting standpoint when it come to the same moral issue, and they believe strongly and genuinely that their standpoints or conducts are right.

文化相对主义
 
 
 
《道德伦理》认为,世界上不存在任何单一的、客观正确的道德学说和道德行为。道德与不同社会的经济、社会和环境因素所决定的文化有关。CR的论证首先基于人类学观察所得的各种文化事实。这个研究领域告诉我们,不同的社会有不同的道德承诺。例如,一个国家的人吃已故父亲的军团,而另一个国家的人认为这是可怕或丑陋的,而烧掉或埋葬他们祖先的军团。另一方面,虽然非伊斯兰国家的妇女有权决定自己的着装,但伊斯兰妇女有义务遮盖身体和面部,将厚厚的面纱。否则,后者将受到谴责和惩罚。也就是说,在这个社会被认为在文化和道德上是正确的,在另一个社会就会被认为在文化和道德上是错误的。每个社会都存在着道德正确与道德错误的区别。然而,人们的道德观念并不是客观上正确的,因为在另一个社会,人们对于同一种道德问题会持有不同甚至冲突的观点,他们强烈而真诚地相信自己的立场或行为是正确的。

However, CR is problematic. First of all, it confuses descriptiveness with prescriptiveness, which leads to the confusion culture with morality. There do exist a variety of culture in different societies. However, many cultures are based on people’s preference and aesthetical experiences, and it is no big deal to see such varieties in our world. Sometimes, many political leaders even say the variety of culture is a good thing and necessitate cultural exchanges rather than cultural Imperialism. However, when it comes to the issue of morality, it’s much more complex. Since morality is a normative study. The fact that different people have different people moral commitments and conception does not necessarily mean that they should continue their commitment or holding their conceptions. What morality deals with is people values and interest. If we agree that people around the world indeed similar interests and that conflicts among people are obviously found everyday, then it would be doubtlessly to conclude that there would be relatively right a way to resolve conflict of interests and value among people, and that is morality.

In addition, despite the variety of culture or morality around the world, there do exist some overlapping among them. For instance, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam commonly reject murder and adultery. The fact that many religions have similar expressions in the manuscripts that “treating others as you would like to be treated as you would like to be treated” is another case to show the overlapping morality around the world. In other words, even in the descriptive sense, people do have some agreement over some issues.
What’s more, even assuming that people do have different moral conducts in different society, this does not mean that people have different moral conceptions. Granted that people mourn their ancestors in different way, they do have the same moral conception—filial piety. What differs is their way to interpret and practice this moral conception. Thus,people do all agree that filial piety is morally right and desirable.

 
然而,CR存在问题。首先,它混淆了描述性和规范性,导致了文化和道德的混淆。在不同的社会中确实存在着不同的文化。然而,许多文化是建立在人们的喜好和审美经验的基础上的,在我们的世界中看到这样的多样性没什么大不了的。有时,许多政治领导人甚至说,文化的多样性是一件好事,文化交流是必要的,而不是文化帝国主义。然而,当涉及到道德问题时,就复杂得多了。因为道德是一项规范研究。不同的人有不同的道德承诺和观念这一事实并不一定意味着他们应该继续他们的承诺或持有他们的观念。道德所涉及的是人的价值观和兴趣。如果我们认为世界上的人确实有着相似的利益,人与人之间每天都有明显的冲突,那么毫无疑问,就会有一种相对正确的方式来解决人与人之间的利益和价值冲突,那就是道德。
 
 
 
此外,尽管世界各地的文化或道德各不相同,但它们之间确实存在一些重叠。例如,佛教、基督教和伊斯兰教通常反对谋杀和通奸。许多宗教的手稿中都有类似的表述:“己所不欲,勿施于人”,这是世界上道德重叠的又一例证。换句话说,即使是在描述的意义上,人们确实对一些问题有一些共识。
 
更重要的是,即使假设人们在不同的社会中有不同的道德行为,这并不意味着人们有不同的道德观念。虽然人们祭祖的方式不同,但他们的道德观念却是一致的,那就是孝道。不同的是他们解释和实践这一道德观念的方式。因此,人们一致认为孝道在道德上是正确的和可取的。

Nonetheless, cultural relativism might claim that the claim that there exist an objective right moral conception or conduct might have disastrous results, since wars in the name of “real religion” in the seventeenth and eighteenth century had told us that to claim the existence of a real or objective thing or conception would result in blood and war. In contrast to cultural or moral objectivism, relativism is a doctrine of tolerance and peace. If we agree that people’s moral conceptions are relative, we would tolerate differences among us. No Crusade, no war, no invasion.

In my point of view, the above view seems to overestimate the influence of moral ideas on politic reality or international relationship. Truly, certain wars are in the name of morality. However, they are not driven by morality but economic factors or emperors personal ambition. Secondly, the fact that I believe some moral standpoints of view are objectively right and what I am holding are the ones does not necessarily mean that I am going to ruin the dissenters physically. I might claim that dissenters are morally wrong and provide my arguments, hoping dissenters be convinced. However, if they do not agree with me, I would tolerate they, if and only if their points of view would not trouble me. That’s to say, the true definition of tolerance lies in the fact that, even though I thing people are morally wrong objectively, I still get along well with them.

 
尽管如此,文化相对主义可能声称声称存在客观正确的道德观念或行为可能会产生灾难性的结果,因为战争“真正的宗教”的名义在17和18世纪曾告诉我们,要求真实或客观事物或概念的存在会导致血液和战争。相对于文化或道德的客观主义,相对主义是一种宽容与和平的学说。如果我们同意人们的道德观是相对的,我们就能容忍彼此之间的差异。没有十字军,没有战争,没有侵略。
 
 
 
在我看来,上述观点似乎高估了道德观念对政治现实或国际关系的影响。确实,某些战争是以道德的名义进行的。然而,他们不是由道德驱动的,而是由经济因素或皇帝的个人野心驱动的。第二,我相信一些道德观点在客观上是正确的,我所持的观点并不一定意味着我要从肉体上摧毁那些持不同政见者。我可能会宣称持不同意见的人在道德上是错误的,并提供我的论点,希望持不同意见的人被说服。但是,如果他们不同意我的观点,我就会容忍他们,只要他们的观点不会困扰我。也就是说,宽容的真正含义在于,即使我客观地认为人们的道德是错误的,我也能和他们相处得很好。

文化相对主义http://www.0592w.com/Paperfanwen/fanwen519.html

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