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摘要:无人机技术Drone technology 下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Drone technology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了无人机的相关技术。无人机的核心技术集中在总体技术,动力系统和飞行控制......

无人机技术 Drone technology


下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Drone technology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了无人机的相关技术。无人机的核心技术集中在总体技术,动力系统和飞行控制技术三个方面,这三个方面共同确定最重要的技术指标。在总体技术方面,无人机总体技术一般包括总体设计和总装集成,需要根据任务需求制定总体方案,从顶层自上而下决定无人机整体的性能指标。而电力系统,UAV动力系统主要有内燃机和电动机的两个主要的类别,并根据其各自的特性应用到不同领域。另外,在飞行控制技术方面,飞行控制技术为核心技术,无人机实现自主飞行。

The core technology of uav focuses on the overall technology, power system and flight control technology, which jointly determine the most important technical indicators, such as flight height, range, direction of navigation, flight speed and load of uav.

In the overall technology, unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) overall technology generally includes overall design and final assembly integration, need to formulate overall plan according to task demand, including machine structure, motor selection, the flight control system design and the index distribution between each subsystem and interface relations, from the top-down decision performance of the unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) as a whole. Currently, most uav manufacturers start from the overall technology. The high-end uav field is almost monopolized by large military state-owned enterprises, such as avic and aerospace science and technology group. In the low-end uav sector, a large number of private enterprises are involved and a hundred flowers are blooming. In terms of overall technology, large companies with strong research and development capabilities and good platform versatility will have certain advantages. They can keep up with the forefront of uav technology, respond quickly to market demands and save research and development costs.

无人机的核心技术集中于整体技术、动力系统和飞行控制技术,它们共同决定了无人机的飞行高度、航程、导航方向、飞行速度和载荷等最重要的技术指标。

 
整体技术,无人机(uav)总体技术一般包括总体设计和总装集成,需要根据任务需求制定总体规划,包括机械结构、电机选择、飞行控制系统设计和各子系统之间的指数分布和接口关系,自上而下的决策绩效的无人机(uav)作为一个整体。目前,大多数无人机制造商从整体技术出发。高端无人机领域几乎被大型军工国有企业所垄断,如中航工业、航天科技集团等。在低端无人机领域,大量民营企业参与其中,百花齐放。在整体技术方面,研发能力强、平台通用性好的大公司将具有一定的优势。它们可以紧跟无人机技术的前沿,快速响应市场需求,节约研发成本。


In terms of power system, UAV power system mainly has two main categories, internal combustion engine and electric motor, and applies to different fields according to their respective characteristics. Take the electric motor as an example. Its power system mainly includes an electric motor, an ESC, a propeller, and a battery. Whether the power system is matched with the whole machine or not directly affects the efficiency and stability of the whole machine, so the power system is very important.

In terms of flight control technology, flight control technology is the core technology, and uav realizes autonomous flight. The hardware of a flight control system usually includes control computers, sensors, navigation devices, actuators, and other equipment. It covers many subjects such as electronics, computers and control. The technology has a high threshold and a complex design. At present, the uav flight control technology is developing towards the source direction, led by foreign companies. Many uav companies can conduct secondary development on the basis of source system, which greatly reduces the technical threshold of flight control and promotes the rapid development of uav industry.

From the perspective of uav application, the pattern of consumer-grade uav for ordinary consumers from functions to major players has been basically determined. Although there are some new technologies emerging constantly, they are generally stable. The concept of industrial-grade drones has only slowly taken shape in the past two years. Industrial-grade uavs are directly targeted at industry needs. They need to have environmental adaptability and reliability, which are directly related to the user experience and market positioning precise and strict requirements. Currently, uav has the following quality problems:

在动力系统方面,无人机动力系统主要分为内燃机和电动机两大类,并根据各自的特点应用于不同的领域。以电动机为例。它的动力系统主要包括一个电动机、一个ESC、一个螺旋桨和一个电池。电力系统与整机的匹配与否直接影响整机的效率和稳定性,因此电力系统非常重要。
 
 
在飞行控制技术方面,飞行控制技术是核心技术,无人机实现自主飞行。飞行控制系统的硬件通常包括控制计算机、传感器、导航设备、致动器和其他设备。它包括许多科目,如电子,计算机和控制。该技术门槛高,设计复杂。目前,无人机飞行控制技术在国外公司的引领下正朝着源头方向发展。很多无人机企业可以在源系统的基础上进行二次开发,大大降低了飞控的技术门槛,促进了无人机行业的快速发展。
 
 
从无人机应用的角度来看,针对普通消费者的消费级无人机从功能到主体的模式已经基本确定。虽然有一些新技术不断出现,但它们通常是稳定的。工业级无人机的概念是在过去两年才慢慢形成的。工业级无人机直接针对工业需求。他们需要具备环境适应性和可靠性,这直接关系到用户体验和市场定位的精准和严格要求。目前无人机存在以下质量问题:
 

Currently, the market of uav mainly USES lithium polymer battery as the main power source, and the durability usually ranges from 20 to 30 minutes, up to 45 minutes, and charging often exceeds 1 hour. The ability of drones to fly is greatly limited.

On the one hand, the development threshold of uav industry is relatively high, but its reliability cannot be guaranteed without relevant qualification examination. On the other hand, for industrial uavs, the reliability of the uavs does not guarantee the safety of the expensive equipment attached to the uavs, and there will be some hidden dangers for the implementation of the mission.

Safety includes the safety of the equipment itself and the safety of being used properly and correctly. For example, flight control, GPS and other instability, interference of ground magnetic field in flight airspace and other problems will lead to uav loss of control and other safety problems.

Uav operating environment is simple or complex, and it is easy to be affected by natural environment, magnetic interference, impact, collision and other climate and mechanical environment. The adaptability of uav environment directly affects its flight performance, and it is easy to damage its equipment.

目前市场上的无人机主要使用锂聚合物电池作为主要动力源,耐久性通常在20 - 30分钟,最高可达45分钟,充电时间往往超过1小时。无人机的飞行能力非常有限。

 
一方面,无人机行业的发展门槛较高,但没有相关的资格考试就无法保证其可靠性。另一方面,对于工业无人机来说,无人机的可靠性并不能保证其所附昂贵设备的安全性,还会对任务的执行带来一些隐患。
 
 
安全包括设备本身的安全和正确使用的安全。例如飞行控制、GPS等不稳定、地面磁场干扰飞行空域等问题都会导致无人机失去控制等安全问题。
 
无人机操作环境简单或复杂,容易受到自然环境、磁干扰、冲击、碰撞等气候和机械环境的影响。无人机环境的适应性直接影响其飞行性能,且极易对其装备造成损坏。
 

Uavs are unmanned aircraft operated by radio remote-control units and separate programmed controls, or by on-board computers operating autonomously, fully or intermittently. From the field of application, it can be divided into military and civilian. About 20,000 drones were sold in China in 2014. It is estimated that annual sales of drones in China will reach 290,000 by 2020. It will maintain a growth rate of more than 50% for the next few years. Sales of civilian drones in China reached 4 billion yuan in 2014. From the perspective of development prospects, uavs have been applied in aerial photography, express delivery, post-disaster search and rescue, data collection and other fields, indicating that the development potential of uavs is huge. In recent years, with the rapid development of the industry, the original competitive pattern of domestic uav development field has been gradually broken, and the market structure is undergoing great changes and reshaping. At least 40 companies and research institutes in China are currently producing or developing uavs. According to different types, it can be roughly divided into three camps: military industrial groups, scientific research institutes and private enterprises.

The emergence of civilian drones is inevitable. Because they are tangible physical targets in a network of smart sensors, they bring significant economies of scale to capturing images and information. In the context of the Internet of things, drones, like other sensors or sensing devices, are data acquisition nodes for large-scale data networks that support large enterprise data.

Recent developments in computer vision and machine learning have the potential to make drones autonomous airborne data collectors, a set of technologies that could help make drone deployment a mainstream commercial phenomenon. A growing number of software startups are tackling software and cloud services.

Future successful civil unmanned aircraft companies need to provide end-to-end solutions, from hardware, software and cloud infrastructure to customized overall solutions. Without sacrificing safety and system reliability, drone manufacturers will need the ability and flexibility to bring new capabilities driven by customer needs and changing market dynamics.
 

无人机是一种无人驾驶飞机,由无线电遥控装置和单独的程序控制操作,或由机载计算机自主、完全或间歇操作。从应用领域来看,可分为军用和民用。2014年,中国售出了大约2万架无人机。据估计,到2020年,中国无人机年销量将达到29万架。未来几年,中国经济将保持50%以上的增长速度。2014年,中国民用无人机的销售额达到了40亿元人民币。从发展前景来看,无人机已经应用于航拍、快递、灾后搜救、数据采集等领域,说明无人机的发展潜力巨大。近年来,随着行业的快速发展,国内无人机发展领域原有的竞争格局逐渐被打破,市场结构正在发生巨大的变化和重塑。中国至少有40家公司和研究机构目前正在生产或开发无人机。根据不同类型,可以大致分为三个阵营:军工集团、科研机构和民营企业。
 
民用无人机的出现不可避免。由于它们在智能传感器网络中是有形的物理目标,它们在捕捉图像和信息方面带来了巨大的规模经济效益。在物联网环境下,无人机与其他传感器或传感设备一样,是支持大型企业数据的大规模数据网络的数据采集节点。
 
计算机视觉和机器学习方面的最新进展有可能使无人机成为自主的空中数据收集器,这一系列技术可能有助于使无人机部署成为一种主流的商业现象。越来越多的软件初创公司正在处理软件和云服务。
 
未来成功的民用无人机公司需要提供端到端的解决方案,从硬件、软件和云基础设施到定制的整体解决方案。在不牺牲安全性和系统可靠性的前提下,无人机制造商需要具备能力和灵活性,以提供受客户需求和不断变化的市场动态驱动的新功能。


More promising future unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) application should be focused on people affected, flying in a fixed area and low altitude areas, such as agriculture, forestry and plant protection and aerial, this kind of unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) development so fast it is for this reason, and similar to the future prospects of application of both operators and manufacturers, will gain great development.

Although China's uav has a certain gap with foreign countries in key technologies, foreign countries have not started large-scale patent application and layout in China. Domestic enterprises should seize the opportunity to further strengthen patent application, layout and application, and actively seek patent application and layout overseas to expand the market.

更有前途的未来无人机(uav)应用程序应该关注影响的人们,在一个固定区域和低海拔地区,如农业、林业和植物保护和天线,这种无人机(uav)发展如此之快,正是因为这一原因,和类似的应用程序的未来前景的运营商和制造商,将获得巨大的发展。

 
虽然我国无人机在关键技术上与国外存在一定差距,但国外还没有开始在我国大规模的专利申请和布局。国内企业应抓住机遇,进一步加强专利申请、布局和申请,积极寻求专利申请和布局海外,拓展市场。

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