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摘要:纪实美学paper范文Documentary aesthetics 下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Documentary aesthetics,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了纪录片的纪实美学。纪录片的世界往往自成一体,遵循着其自......

纪实美学paper范文  Documentary aesthetics


下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Documentary aesthetics,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了纪录片的纪实美学。纪录片的世界往往自成一体,遵循着其自有的运行规律,观众只是这个世界的过客,不可预知是纪录片世界里的永恒诱惑。纪实不等于现实,因为现实是千头万绪、含混、充满可能性的,所以纪录片创作既要尊重现实的丰富性,又要注意留白,做真实的偷窃者。

The world of documentary tends to be self-contained, following its own rules of operation. The audience is only a traveler in this world, and unpredictability is the eternal temptation in the world of documentary. Documentary is not equal to reality, because the reality is myriad, ambiguous and full of possibilities. Therefore, documentary creation should not only respect the richness of reality, but also pay attention to the blank space and be a real thief.

Free climbing, a documentary co-directed by Kim kwok-wei and Elizabeth chai vasharili, won the best documentary feature award at the 91st Academy Awards on February 25, 2019. Free Solo refers to Solo climbing without protection. Except for climbing shoes and powder bags, all other protective equipment, such as ropes and mechanical plugs, are not allowed to be used, and the auxiliary equipment, such as the lift, is also forbidden.

Alex honnold, the protagonist of the documentary, is a well-known figure in the field of free climbing. The film tells the story of alex's journey to conquer el capitan, an "absolute climbing paradise", in June 2017. Director Kim kwok-wai and Elizabeth chai vasareli are a couple. In addition to directing, Kim is also a rock climber and has worked with alex for a long time. Alex honnaud, born in 1985, loved indoor climbing as a child and dropped out of Berkeley at 19 to live in an rv and travel around challenging new rocks. Alex wasn't the only free climber, but he was the most influential and a very good one.
 
纪录片的世界往往是独立的,遵循自己的运作规则。观众只是这个世界上的一个过客,不可预测性是纪录片世界里永恒的诱惑。纪录片不等于现实,因为现实是无数的,模糊的,充满可能性的。因此,纪录片的创作不仅要尊重现实的丰富性,更要注意留白,做一个真正的小偷。
 
2019年2月25日,由金国伟和伊丽莎白·chai vasharili共同执导的纪录片《自由攀登》获得第91届奥斯卡最佳纪录片奖。自由攀爬指的是没有保护的攀爬。除攀登鞋、粉袋外,其他所有防护设备如绳索、机械塞等均不得使用,辅助设备如升降机等也不得使用。
 
这部纪录片的主角Alex honnold是自由攀爬领域的知名人物。这部电影讲述了alex在2017年6月征服酋长岩(el capitan)的故事,酋长岩是一个“绝对的攀岩天堂”。导演金国威和Elizabeth chai vasareli是一对情侣。除了导演,金还是一名攀岩者,并与亚历克斯合作了很长一段时间。出生于1985年的亚历克斯·霍纳德(Alex honnaud)小时候喜欢室内攀岩,19岁时从伯克利辍学,住在一辆房车里,四处旅行,挑战新岩石。亚历克斯不是唯一的自由攀爬者,但他是最有影响力的,也是一个非常好的攀爬者。

In the creation of documentary, "reality is an ideological construction, which is based on neither real perception nor reproduction of the film. The whole picture has what Lucas called the whole, but it is illusory. For the eyes and camera, the part is the field of vision and lens". In other words, documentary directors should know how to make use of the truth of parts and details in order to arouse the illusion of the reality of the audience as a whole.

Free climbing is about alex's conquest of el capitan. Alex is the best in the field of free climbing, but free climbing el capitan, known as the "absolute climbing mecca" by the insiders, is still unprecedented for alex. Before the first formal challenge, alex began to hesitate about whether he should continue shooting after talking with the senior members in the circle. Besides not wanting to be seen as a show, he was also afraid of being distracted. So when director Kim kwok-wai offered to put a camera on ju-shuo-po, alex said, "nobody wants to see it. The director asked again and again, but alex kept silent, and the scene was just there, a documentary. As for the director, he wants to shoot every shot as much as possible, but there will be moments when the subject does not want to be disturbed, which is a conflict of interests. Unlike feature films, which have to come up with solutions, there is no solution. In a documentary, not every question has to have an answer.

Therefore, the local part is the field of vision and lens, and some scenes affect the audience, not only the external rhythm of narration, but also the internal rhythm of narration. The success of a documentary depends on whether it evokes the illusion of reality, or whether it can be remembered, even behind dark scenes. A good documentary should not be full of gimmicks, exciting, but reveal the true meaning of life.

 
在纪录片的创作中,“现实是一种意识形态的建构,它既不是基于真实的感知,也不是基于对影片的复制。”整个画面是卢卡斯所说的整体,但它是虚幻的。对于眼睛和相机,部分是视野和镜头”。也就是说,纪录片导演应该知道如何利用部分的真实性和细节的真实性来唤起观众整体对现实的错觉。
 
 
自由攀登是关于亚历克斯征服酋长岩的故事。Alex是自由攀爬领域的佼佼者,但是自由攀爬el capitan对于Alex来说仍然是前所未有的,被业内人士称为“绝对的攀岩圣地”。在第一次正式挑战之前,alex在和圈子里的资深成员交谈后,开始犹豫是否要继续拍摄。除了不想被视为一种表演,他还害怕分心。所以当导演金国伟提出要在周硕宝上放一部摄像机时,亚历克斯说:“没人想看。”导演问了一遍又一遍,但亚历克斯保持沉默,而场景就在那里,一部纪录片。对于导演来说,他希望尽可能多的拍摄每一个镜头,但有时会出现主体不想被打扰的情况,这是一种利益冲突。不像故事片,必须想出解决方案,没有解决方案。在纪录片中,并不是每个问题都必须有答案。
 
因此,局部部分是视场和镜头,一些场景影响着观众,不仅是叙事的外部节奏,也包括叙事的内部节奏。一部纪录片的成功取决于它是否唤起了现实的幻觉,或者它是否能被记住,即使是在幕后。一部好的纪录片不应该充满噱头、刺激,而是要揭示生活的真谛。

Every shot in a documentary has a frame, which means that there is no "absolute wholeness" and correspondingly no "whole truth". As Frederick wiseman said, "I cannot express the whole truth." The real truth and the illusion generated by it are not only limited to the mere shot, but also limited by the technical conditions, unable to express the overall reality. Then, as much as possible can be installed. The documentary is just the real "thief".

For documentaries, works that point to a single direction and go straight to the theme, though clear and clear, are difficult to move and shock the audience. On the contrary, properly maintaining the ambiguity and ambiguity of real life can not only deepen the audience's understanding of reality, but also help them form "real illusion". In other words, in the narrative context of the documentary, redundant information, such as repetition, uselessness and white space, should be properly retained.

Free climbing, as an extreme sport, differs greatly from other extreme sports such as surfing, parkour, cross-country cycling and roller-skating in that it is extremely monotonous. With the restriction that climbers can only climb up one step at a time, "free climbing" is unable to make spectacular shots. Instead, it pays more attention to the use of composition to make the camera language more powerful.
 
纪录片的每一个镜头都有一个框架,这就意味着没有“绝对的完整”,也就没有“完整的真相”。正如弗雷德里克·怀斯曼(Frederick wiseman)所说:“我无法表达全部真相。”真实的真实和由此产生的幻觉,不仅局限于镜头本身,也受到技术条件的限制,无法表达整体的真实。然后,尽可能多的可以安装。这部纪录片才是真正的“小偷”。
 
对于纪录片来说,指向单一方向,直接切入主题的作品,虽然清晰明了,却很难打动观众,震撼观众。反之,适当保持现实生活的模糊性和模糊性,不仅可以加深观众对现实的理解,还可以帮助观众形成“真实的幻觉”。换句话说,在纪录片的叙事语境中,应该适当保留重复、无用、空白等冗余信息。
 
自由攀爬作为一项极限运动,与冲浪、跑酷、越野自行车、轮滑等极限运动有很大的不同,其单调性极强。由于攀岩者每次只能爬上一个台阶的限制,“徒手攀爬”无法拍出精彩的照片。相反,它更注重构图的运用,使镜头语言更加有力。
 
In addition to feature climbing as the theme, free climbing also shot a lot of natural scenery as the film's blank, which greatly enhanced the film's edge sense and made the narrative more appealing. When alex is sitting cross-legged on the grass below el cap, writing notes for the climb, take the grass as the foreground. The camera moves forward at a flat Angle. The lens frames alex at the same time as the tall and steep el cap behind him. Another example is that when alex tried climbing, a rainbow appeared on the waterfall next to the rock wall. The camera placed the fulcrum at the other end of the rainbow and shot from alex's side. The rock wall, rainbow and mountain stream were exactly three points in the picture. Blank space gives free climbing a higher level of meaning, evokes the illusion of reality and gives the audience a sense of nature.

The redundant information in the documentary should also play a role in accumulating emotions and elaborating narration, so that the audience can understand the meaning behind the picture and the purpose behind the words. Free climbing lasts an hour and 40 minutes, but only the last 20 minutes are left for alex to formally challenge el capitan. The first hour and 20 minutes are more about showing alex as a person. Although alex has already made a name for himself in the field of free climbing, director Kim kwok-wai did not immediately build him into a perfect hero. Instead, he showed the whole picture of alex, including thoughts, feelings, personality and behaviors, to the audience with a large amount of daily follow-up shots.

Flashbacks are used to recall alex's childhood twice, once at the beginning of the film and once at a Halloween party with his girlfriend's family. His natural introversion, his father's upbringing and his mother's strictness all became alex's initial motivation. As he said, "I didn't want to talk to anyone and I didn't want anyone to talk to me. And if you're a perfectionist, then free climbing is even better for you because it puts you at the point of death where you have to be absolutely sure." The use of flashbacks shows alex's inner world more directly, making the behavior of the characters and the plot of the film more logical and conducive to the audience's understanding.
 
除了以登山为主题外,自由登山还拍摄了大量的自然风景作为影片的空白,极大的增强了影片的边缘感,使得叙事更加吸引人。当亚历克斯盘腿坐在酋长岩下面的草地上,为爬山写笔记时,把草地作为前景。摄像机以一个平角向前移动。镜头把亚历克斯和他身后又高又陡的酋长岩框在一起。另一个例子是,当alex尝试攀登时,在岩壁旁边的瀑布上出现了彩虹。相机将支点放在彩虹的另一端,从亚历克斯的一侧拍摄。岩壁、彩虹和山涧恰好是画面中的三个点。空白空间赋予自由攀爬更高层次的意义,唤起现实的幻觉,给观众一种自然的感觉。
 
纪录片中多余的信息也应该起到情感积累和解说的作用,让观众明白画面背后的意义和话语背后的目的。徒手攀爬持续1小时40分钟,但只剩下最后20分钟alex正式挑战酋长岩。第一个小时20分钟更多的是展示alex真实的一面。虽然alex已经在自由攀爬领域成名,但导演金国伟没有立即将他塑造成一个完美的英雄。而是通过大量的日常后续拍摄,向观众展示了alex的整个形象,包括思想、情感、个性、行为。
 
影片中使用了两次闪回来回忆亚历克斯的童年,一次是在影片开头,另一次是在万圣节和他女朋友一家的聚会上。他天生的内向,父亲的教养和母亲的严厉,这些都成为了他最初的动力。他说:“我不想和任何人说话,我也不想任何人和我说话。”如果你是个完美主义者,那么自由攀登对你更有好处,因为它会把你置于死亡的边缘,而你必须绝对确定。”闪回的运用更直接的展现了alex的内心世界,使人物的行为和电影的情节更有逻辑性,有利于观众的理解。
 
As another example, when alex and his girlfriend sunny in the bridal chamber, he said: "my view in a different way of life and sunny, sunny think the meaning of life is happiness, but to me, the meaning of life lies in achievement, is to draw, you face to face with fear, just because it is the request of your goals, this is the mighty spirit." Everyday scenes that have nothing to do with the theme of the film, however, can accumulate the audience's emotions and satisfy their expectations of exploring the connection between the thoughts and actions of the protagonist. When he Shared his climbing notes with his friend tommy caldewood, tommy asked him if he had written, "tallest juniper tree I've ever seen, missing my mother, missing my dog," but what alex had written was, "belle wall difficulty 7C+, nearly fell once, two muscle pains, need more practice." There is no doubt that alex is rational, but the film does not make the audience understand this through lectures, but through redundant information such as daily narration.

The same theme is rock climbing, which is different from the structure of climbing meru peak. In terms of narration, free climbing lays out the whole picture of alex. Instead of selecting a certain fragment to enlarge infinitely, it carries out an accumulative impression of subjective description on the arrangement of paragraphs.
 
作为另一个例子,当亚历克斯和他的女朋友阳光明媚的新房,他说:“我认为在一个不同的生活方式和阳光,阳光认为生命的意义是快乐,但对我来说,生命的意义在于成就,是画,你面对恐惧,只是因为它是你的目标的要求,这是强大的精神。”而与影片主题无关的日常场景,却可以积累观众的情感,满足观众对探索主人公思想与行为之间联系的期待。当他和朋友汤米·卡尔德伍德分享他的攀岩笔记时,汤米问他是否写过“我见过的最高的罗柏树,想念我的妈妈,想念我的狗”,但亚历克斯写的是“belle wall难度7C+,差点摔倒一次,两次肌肉疼痛,需要更多的练习。”毫无疑问alex是理性的,但影片并没有通过讲课让观众理解这一点,而是通过日常叙事等冗余信息。
 
同样的主题是攀岩,这与攀登梅鹿峰的结构不同。在叙述上,自由攀登展现了alex的全貌。它不是选择某个片段来无限放大,而是对段落的安排进行主观描述的累积印象。
 
In the documentary, seemingly idle scenes bring infinite feelings, while seemingly unrelated dialogues bring unexpected surprises. As French documentary filmmaker nicola filibel said, "every time I make a film, I'm looking for a story, for a metaphor that allows me to transcend reality." When the material keeps pouring into the scene, look for its relevance and consider its metaphor. The story is not waiting for people to shoot, is to look for, only to do this can shoot a different perspective.

The production method of classic documentary is to place the subject in the frame and look out from the frame. The world of documentary is a reality with its own running rules, which just happens to be framed by people. As Hitchcock said, "the god of feature films is the director, and the director of documentaries is the god." Therefore, unpredictability is the inevitable feature of documentary and the eternal temptation of documentary people.

At the end of the film, after alex successfully challenges el cap, the director asks, "you've done it now, what do you want to do next?" 'I'm going to do some suspension training now,' said alex. The film went dark during alex's suspension training. As you can see, the director wanted alex to pose, but alex's unexpected answer made the end of the film more dramatic. In the 1940s, Italian "neorealist cinema" advocated that the world in the screen frame was only a part of reality, not isolated and isolated. It's not open to the audience, and when the audience leaves, real life continues... Even though the end song had started and the credits had started, the audience still thought alex was doing suspension training. When free climbing does that, it succeeds.
 
在纪录片中,看似空闲的场景带来无限的感受,看似无关的对话带来意想不到的惊喜。正如法国纪录片导演尼科拉·菲利贝尔(nicola filibel)所说,“每次我拍一部电影,我都在寻找一个故事,寻找一个能让我超越现实的隐喻。”当材料不断涌入场景,寻找它的相关性和考虑它的隐喻。故事不是等人去拍摄的,是去寻找的,只有这样才能拍摄出不同的视角。
 
经典纪录片的制作方法是将主体置于画面中,从画面中向外看。纪录片的世界是一个有自己运行规则的现实,只不过是被人框定的。正如希区柯克所说,“故事片的上帝就是导演,纪录片的导演就是上帝。”因此,不可预测性是纪录片的必然特征,也是纪录片人永恒的诱惑。
 
在影片的最后,当亚历克斯成功地挑战酋长岩时,导演问道:“你已经完成了,接下来想做什么?”“我现在要做一些禁闭训练,”亚历克斯说。在亚历克斯接受禁赛训练期间,影片陷入了黑暗。正如你所看到的,导演想让alex摆姿势,但是alex出乎意料的回答让电影的结尾更加戏剧化。20世纪40年代,意大利的“新现实主义电影”主张,银幕框架中的世界只是现实的一部分,而不是孤立和孤立的。它不向观众开放,当观众离开时,现实生活还在继续……虽然结束曲已经开始,演职员表也已经开始,但观众仍然认为alex在做休学训练。自由攀爬做到了这一点,它就成功了。
 

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