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摘要:权威的力量Report范文 The Power of authority A Brief Explaination About Adolf Eichmann And His Behaviour On May 11th, 190, a group of agents from Israel arrested a man who worked for Benz. That man was Adolf Eichmann, one of the most infamous N......

权威的力量Report范文 The Power of authority
 
A Brief Explaination About Adolf Eichmann And His Behaviour
 
On May 11th, 190, a group of agents from Israel arrested a man who worked for Benz. That man was Adolf Eichmann, one of the most infamous Nazi murderers and criminals in the world. However, on the trail held in Jerusalem, he did not believe that he was guiltier than the Nazi government itself was. On the contrary, he believed that whatever he had committed in the past was only an action of fulfilling his official duty, just like what he said below,
 
关于阿道夫·艾希曼及其行为的简要解释
 
190年5月11日,一群以色列特工逮捕了一名为奔驰工作的男子。这个人就是阿道夫·艾希曼,世界上最臭名昭著的纳粹杀人犯和罪犯之一。然而,在耶路撒冷的审判过程中,他并不认为自己比纳粹政府本身更有罪。相反,他认为他过去所做的一切,只是履行他的职务,正如他下面所说的,
 
But these misdeeds did not happen according to my wishes. It was not my wish to slay people. The guilty for the mass murder is solely of the political leaders……..Once again I would stress that I a guilty of having been obedience, having subordinated myself to my official duties…….I did not persecute Jews with my avidity and passion. That is what the government did.()
 
Human are social animals, and obedience has a long history dating back Stone Age. Back then, Individuals worked together in order to survive. Then authority emerged so that individuals could coordinate better under the commands of the authority and the tasks, food and trophies could be allotted equally. Being submissive to authority had gradually become a virtue since then, just like what Stanley Milgram wrote in his paper, The Perils of Obedience, “The dilemma inherent in submission to authority is ancient, as old as the story of Abraham.”  ()However, as a matter of fact, obedience is a rapier. On the one hand, it did help human develop though history. On the other hand, obedience has cause many tragedies in human history due to the power of authority. There are two interesting aspects of the power of the authority.
 
First, the power of authority could be so nature that no one could feel it until years after. Human have learnt to adjust to the society its living. One important aspect of adjust to the society is to obey authority. Therefore, as human nature, people have learnt to follow the authority. If not, those people will be isolated from society. Furthermore, sometimes, people just obey the authority naturally. When they do something at certain time, they don’t think there is anything odd in their behaviours. Because everybody else does it, it is natural for civilians just to follow the mainstream of society, the authority, or in other words, whoever doesn’t do the same thing is considered as heretic. However, after certain period of time, when the same people look back what they have done, some of them seem confused about their actions. However of them could figure out why their actions are odd unless someone else points it out for them.
 
但是这些恶行并没有按照我的意愿发生。杀人不是我的意愿。犯下大屠杀罪行的只有政治领导人我要再次强调,我对自己的服从感到内疚,我对自己服从我的公务感到内疚我没有以我的贪婪和激情迫害犹太人。政府就是这么做的
 
人类是一种社会性动物,而服从的历史可以追溯到石器时代。那时,个体为了生存而共同工作。然后权威出现了,个人可以在权威的命令下更好地协调,任务,食物和战利品可以平等分配。从那时起,服从权威逐渐成为一种美德,正如斯坦利·米尔格拉姆在他的论文《服从的危险》中所写的那样,“服从权威的内在困境是古老的,就像亚伯拉罕的故事一样古老。()然而,事实上,服从是一把利剑。一方面,它确实在历史上帮助了人类的发展。另一方面,由于权威的力量,服从在人类历史上造成了许多悲剧。关于当局的权力,有两个有趣的方面。
 
首先,权威的力量是如此自然,以至于多年以后才会有人感觉到它。人类已经学会了适应社会。适应社会的一个重要方面就是服从权威。因此,作为人的天性,人们学会了服从权威。否则,这些人就会被社会孤立。此外,有时候,人们只是自然地服从权威。当他们在特定的时间做某件事时,他们不认为自己的行为有什么奇怪的。因为其他人都这么做,平民很自然地就会跟随社会主流,权威,或者换句话说,谁不做同样的事情,谁就会被视为异端。然而,经过一段时间后,当同样的人回顾他们所做的事情时,他们中的一些人似乎对自己的行为感到困惑。然而,他们中的一些人能够弄清楚为什么他们的行为是奇怪的,除非有人指出给他们看。
Just like the case recorded in Milgram’s study, Bruno Batta showed no mercy during the whole study. He still continued the test without any guilty  even after he heard the student scream and beg him to let the student go. He was aware that the student had heart condition might affect his health. Like what Milgram wrote , “ They are prod of doing a good job, obeying the experimenter under difficult circumstances.”()
 
During Chinese ten-year  Cultural Revolution, many people were like that. During the ten years, the slogan is that “Protect the Communist Party, and defeats its entire enemy.” My grandfather used to be a part of a group named “Chairman Mao’s Army”. What they did was to protect Chairman Mao and to defeat his enemy. However, ironically, they had never ever seen Chairman Mao in their own life. At the time, there was another group of people named “Chairman Mao’s Protector”, and what they did was also to protect the chairman and to defeat its army. However, these two groups saw each other as enemies of Chairman Mao. They believed that the other group just used name, and what the other group really wanted to do is to destroy the entire Communist Party. Therefore, they fought with each other. And in worst case, they even used guns, hand-made bombs and weapons to kill each other.
 
However, as a matter of fact, this is not only a single case. During the 10 years, many thing like that happened in China. They reason why my grandpa participated in this ridicules activities was because he felt proud to be a part of the Red, and so were others. This  is another example of the power of the authority. 
 
就像Milgram的研究中记录的案例一样,Bruno Batta在整个研究过程中没有表现出怜悯的态度。即使在他听到那个学生尖叫并求他放了他之后,他仍然毫无愧疚地继续考试。他意识到这个学生的心脏病可能会影响他的健康。如米尔格拉姆所写,“他们被激励在困难的环境下服从实验者,做好工作。”
 
在中国十年文化大革命期间,很多人都是这样。十年来的口号是“保卫共产党,打败全部敌人”。我的祖父曾经是一个名为“毛主席的军队”的组织的成员。他们所做的是保护毛主席和打败他的敌人。然而,讽刺的是,他们从来没有见过毛主席。当时,还有一群人叫“毛主席的保护者”,他们也保护了毛主席,打败了毛主席的军队。然而,这两个群体都视对方为毛主席的敌人。他们认为,对方只是用了名字,而对方真正想做的是摧毁整个共产党。因此,他们互相打了起来。最糟糕的情况是,他们甚至用枪、手工炸弹和武器互相残杀。
 
然而,事实上,这并不是个案。在这10年里,中国发生了很多类似的事情。他们认为我爷爷参加这个活动是因为他和其他人都为自己是红色的一份子而感到自豪。这是当局权力的另一个例子。
Second, the power of authority could be so strong that no one could resist it. Human have learnt to be submissive to the authority. Sometime, people would commit things that are wrong morally in their minds due to the power of authority. Like the case recorded in Milgram’s study. When they are in the middle of test, 50-year-old Fred Prozi could hear and see that his “student” is suffering from electric shocks and this might cause student’s death because of the student’s heart condition. During the study, he requested to terminate the test for several times. However, when authority told him to continue, he obeyed, even he didn’t feel comfortable to do so. ()
 
第二,权威的力量可以强大到没有人能抗拒它。人类已经学会了服从权威。有时候,由于权威的力量,人们会做出在道德上错误的事情。就像米尔格拉姆的研究中记录的那样。当他们在考试中,50岁的弗雷德·普罗齐能听到并看到他的“学生”遭受电击,这可能会导致学生因心脏问题而死亡。在研究期间,他多次要求终止测试。然而,当权威让他继续的时候,他服从了,即使他不觉得舒服这样做。()
 
This could be a fine aspect of explanation of Eichmann’s behaviours. In his final trail, he  argued that he felt “uncomfortable” for him certain behaviours.() However, he still had to do it because it was his duty. 
 
这可以很好地解释艾希曼的行为。在他最后的旅程中,他说他对他的某些行为感到“不舒服”,但是,他仍然必须这样做,因为这是他的责任。
 
In conclusion, it is difficult to determine who we should blame for the massive murderer during WWII. What happened to Eichmann is the mixture of tragedy. Could we blame him for all the crimes he had done? Or could we just simply forgive him because he was also one of the victims from the power of authority? Or could we just blame Nazi or Hitler even if we know all the cruel tortures and murders were committed by individuals? It is hard to say, but one thing for sure is that war is a  game with failing ending and  no one could won.
 
总之,我们很难确定谁应该为二战期间的大规模谋杀负责。发生在艾希曼身上的是一场悲剧。我们能责怪他犯下的所有罪行吗?或者我们可以简单地原谅他,因为他也是权力的受害者之一?或者即使我们知道所有残忍的折磨和谋杀都是由个人犯下的,我们也能仅仅责怪纳粹或希特勒吗?这很难说,但有一件事是肯定的,那就是战争是一场失败的游戏,没有人会赢。
 

权威的力量Report范文http://www.0592w.com/Reportfanwen/fanwen538.html

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