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摘要:《白与黑》读后感Report范文 这是一篇关于书籍《White Over Black》的观后感Report The relationship between white people and nonwhite people has been hotly discussed by the public for a long time. After reading about the thesis of M......

《白与黑》读后感Report范文
这是一篇关于书籍《White Over Black》的观后感Report

The relationship between white people and nonwhite people has been hotly discussed by the public for a long time. After reading about the thesis of Myne Owne Ground recommended by our tutor, I have a consultancy to many materials. Here I want to share my ideas with you. In this essay, it aims to solve the following two questions: firstly, what were relationships did white Europeans and nonwhites have during the 17th century? Secondly, what factors do they influenced the relationship between white Europeans and nonwhites during the 17th century? In this essay, it will first give a short summary and comment on the book Myne Owne Ground and its author, T. H. Breen. Second the essay will give a short introduction about the origin of white Europeans and nonwhites in America. Third the essay will give a detailed description about the relationship between the white Europeans and nonwhites in early America. Lastly the essay will analyze the reasons for the factors that influence the relationship. 


Breen is a specialist on the American Revolution; he studies the history of early America with a special interest in political thought, material culture, and cultural anthropology. He has won many prizes for his achievement in the study of early American history. Myne Owne Ground is one of his great books finished with another author named Stephen Innes. This book tells the readers about the lives of blacks in Virginia Era who struggled for a free live. It also tells readers about their process to conquer the unavoidable difficulties, establish their plantations and amass property step by step. It also tells the readers about the relationship between white people and nonwhite people in this Era. This book is highly recognized by the public. Ross Frank, professor from University of California remarks that, it’s an excellent book that introduces the complexities of American slavery during the colonial origins.( Jordan 110)

长期以来,白人和非白人的关系一直是公众热议的话题。在阅读了导师推荐的我自己的论文后,我查阅了很多资料。在这里,我想和大家分享一下我的想法。本文旨在解决以下两个问题:首先,在17世纪,欧洲白人和非白人之间的关系是什么?其次,在17世纪,影响欧洲白人和非白人关系的因素是什么?在本文中,首先对《我自己的土地》这本书及其作者t·h·布林做一个简短的总结和评论。其次,本文将简要介绍欧洲白种人和美国非白种人的起源。第三,本文将详细描述早期美洲的欧洲白人与非白人的关系。最后,本文将分析影响这一关系的因素的原因。
 
 
 
 
 
布林是研究美国革命的专家;他研究美国早期的历史,对政治思想、物质文化和文化人类学有着特殊的兴趣。他在研究美国早期历史方面的成就获得了许多奖项。Myne Owne Ground是他与另一位作家Stephen Innes完成的伟大著作之一。这本书向读者讲述了弗吉尼亚时期为自由生活而奋斗的黑人的生活。讲述了他们克服困难,建立种植园,逐步积累财产的过程。它还向读者讲述了这个时代的白人和非白人的关系。这本书受到公众的高度认可。来自加州大学的教授Ross Frank说,这是一本优秀的书它介绍了美国奴隶制在殖民时期的复杂性。(约110)
 
First, the essay will give a short introduction about the origin of white Europeans and nonwhites in America. Before the discovery of new continent by Columbia and colonial activities by European countries, there were no white people in America. The first group of white people arriving at America was Vikings, who were adventurous fishermen. The mass scale of white Europeans in America began after the arrival of “May Flower”, meaning from the establishment of Jamestown and thirteen colonies. Nonwhites include those whose color skin being not white. Here the essay will focus on the discussion about Indians and African immigrants.(Bernard 77)  About 20 thousand years ago, there were some wanderers from Asia. These were the ancestors of Indian. When Columbus discovered new continent, there were 20 million Indians living there. Among them about 1 million lived in the current Canada, middle and northern America. Gradually, people from other European countries began to settle down in the continent of America and thirteen colonies established. Due to different background, these white Europeans and nonwhites have many differences in the aspects of economic forms, political system and values. 

首先,这篇文章将简要介绍欧洲白种人和美国非白种人的起源。在哥伦比亚发现新大陆和欧洲国家殖民活动之前,美洲没有白人。第一批到达美洲的白人是维京人,他们是富有冒险精神的渔民。欧洲白人在美洲的大规模定居始于“五月花”的到来,意指詹姆斯敦和十三个殖民地的建立。非白人包括那些肤色不是白色的人。这篇文章将集中讨论印度人和非洲移民。(伯纳德77)大约两万年前,有一些来自亚洲的流浪者。他们是印第安人的祖先。当哥伦布发现新大陆时,有两千万印第安人生活在那里。其中大约有100万人生活在现在的加拿大、美国中部和北部。渐渐地,来自其他欧洲国家的人们开始在美洲大陆定居下来,13个殖民地建立起来。由于欧洲白人和非白人的背景不同,他们在经济形态、政治制度、价值观等方面存在着许多差异。

Then the essay will give a detailed description about the relationship between the white Europeans and nonwhites in 17th 18th century. In the beginning of 17th century, a slave ship took several nonwhite people and arrived in Northern America. This marks the beginning of the relationship between European white people and nonwhites in the history. In 1661, Virginia took the black people to the America and made it legal to sell slavers. Black people were then become the synonym of Negros. The black people were always regarded as inferior people who were dirty, unenlightened and rude. So until now, when people talk about black people, the image appears would be someone who were locked by handcuffs and shackles. Comparing to the white people, black people means evil. In 17th Century, the existence of black slavery and phenomenon of black people being oppressed had always been a severe problem in American society. The black slavery had hindered the political and social development in America by the middle of 19th Century and the influences of slavery lasted for a long time. (Thompson 280) The invisible chain, meaning oppression and discrimination to the black people, influenced a long time. The slavery system is the historical source of the race relations. After American Civil War, black people had become freedom and their rights had been confirmed in the American Legal system. However, due to protest from white supremacists, in 1883, the Supreme Court in America denied the decree of canceling the racial discrimination. In 1896, the Supreme Court in America claimed that to separate but to be equal. In any public area, no black people can enter the zones for the white people. With the prosperous development of civil movement, racial segregation was abolished again. This kind of policies had weakened the social status of black people and on the other hand, it had increase the discrimination and hatred to the black from the white supremacist. So, from the end of civil war to the beginning of 20th Century, black people kept being persecuted by the white supremacists. According to the legislative regulations, all the rights of slaves are deprived of rights. Black people were unsatisfied with their social status and then rise up. (MacPerson 35) The economy in the America in 17th century belonged to the colonial economy. In the Northern part, it is the capitalistic commercial economy. In the middle part, it produced wheats and its southern part was the slavery plantation economy. 

然后这篇文章将对17 - 18世纪欧洲白种人和非白种人的关系进行详细的描述。17世纪初,一艘奴隶船载着几个非白人到达北美。这标志着历史上欧洲白人与非白人关系的开始。1661年,弗吉尼亚把黑人带到美国,并使贩卖奴隶成为合法行为。那时,Black people就成了Negros的同义词。黑人总是被认为是下等人,他们肮脏、无知、粗鲁。所以直到现在,当人们谈论到黑人时,他们的形象都是被手铐和脚镣锁住的人。和白人相比,黑人意味着邪恶。在17世纪,黑人奴隶制的存在和黑人受压迫的现象一直是美国社会的一个严重问题。到19世纪中叶,黑人奴隶制已经阻碍了美国政治和社会的发展,奴隶制的影响持续了很长一段时间。(Thompson 280)无形的锁链,对黑人的压迫和歧视,影响了很长一段时间。奴隶制是种族关系的历史根源。美国内战后,黑人获得了自由,他们的权利在美国的法律体系中得到了确认。然而,由于白人至上主义者的抗议,美国最高法院在1883年否决了取消种族歧视的法令。1896年,美国最高法院提出要隔离但要平等。在任何公共区域,黑人都不能进入白人区域。随着民权运动的蓬勃发展,种族隔离再次被废除。这种政策一方面削弱了黑人的社会地位,另一方面也增加了白人至上主义者对黑人的歧视和仇恨。所以,从内战结束到20世纪初,黑人一直受到白人至上主义者的迫害。根据法律规定,奴隶的一切权利都被剥夺了。黑人对自己的社会地位不满意,于是就往上爬。(MacPerson 35) 17世纪的美国经济属于殖民地经济。在北部,是资本主义的商业经济。中部生产小麦,南部实行奴隶制种植园经济。

Then the essay will analyze the reasons for the factors that influence the relationship between white Europeans and nonwhites during the 17th century. First, the reason is their belief in racial superiority. In the decree of Christian, it tells the followers that African black people are superior since they are lazy. In European, it is widely believed that people with white skin color are most superior while those with dark black are most inferior. In their opinion, the color of the skin can reflect the situation of each people. People with light color have the power to create civilization while who with dark skin color will be ruled. In the culture of white Europeans, white represents kindness, purity and beauty while black represents evilness and ugliness. The culture of racial superiority begins in the Anglo-Saxon Era. In American people’s eye, only English people who have the same blood relationship can be called as the most excellent ethnic group. The rest should be called as inferior people. This kind of cultural value has influenced the relationship between white Europeans and nonwhites in early America deeply.( Ralph  89)

The second reason dues to the change of slavery system. With the arrival of African slaves in America, the racial discrimination appeared. In 1619, with the arrival of the black slaves, the white Europeans from England regarded them as servants and released them a few years later. After their release, they competed for the limited resources. Meanwhile, it needed some people to replace the physical labors. Considering about their vague social status and its difficulty to force people from other nations to do the work, white Europeans began to make slavery legal. The black slaves were the private possessions of the slave owners and they were sold like livestock. They were forced to work for 18-19 hours per day and oppressed by the slave owners. Slave Trade made the social status of black people decrease and discrimination from white Europeans became more severe. 

然后分析17世纪影响欧洲白人和非白人关系的因素的原因。首先,原因是他们相信种族优越。在基督教的法令中,它告诉追随者非洲黑人是优越的,因为他们是懒惰的。在欧洲,人们普遍认为白皮肤的人最优秀,而黑皮肤的人最低下。在他们看来,皮肤的颜色可以反映每个人的情况。浅色的人有创造文明的力量,深色的人会被统治。在欧洲白人文化中,白色代表善良、纯洁和美丽,而黑色则代表邪恶和丑陋。种族优越感的文化始于盎格鲁-撒克逊时代。在美国人的眼里,只有拥有相同血缘关系的英国人才称得上是最优秀的民族。其余的人应该被称为下等人。这种文化价值观对美国早期欧洲白人与非白人的关系产生了深远的影响。(Ralph 89)
 
 
 
第二个原因是由于奴隶制度的改变。随着非洲奴隶的到来,种族歧视出现了。1619年,随着黑人奴隶的到来,来自英国的欧洲白人把他们当作仆人,几年后就释放了他们。获释后,他们开始争夺有限的资源。同时,它需要一些人来代替体力劳动。考虑到他们模糊的社会地位和强迫其他国家的人去工作的困难,欧洲白人开始使奴隶制合法化。黑奴是奴隶主的私有财产,他们像牲畜一样被出售。他们被迫每天工作18-19个小时,并受到奴隶主的压迫。奴隶贸易使得黑人的社会地位下降,来自欧洲白人的歧视更加严重。
 
The third reason is due to white Europeans’ sense of mission. Its core idea is that invasion is reasonable. White Europeans believed that they were selected by the God and had their missions. In 1620, a crew of puritans arrived at Northern America by “May Flower” and thus turned a new page for the history of America. These puritans were forced to run to this new continent since there was religious persecution in their hometown. However they did not be grateful for the help of Indians with their settlement in new place. Instead, they were ambitious to prove that, they are selected by the god and are endowed with talents and wisdom. They did make achievements in this new continent. In their eyes, the other nations’ benefits are unimportant. Their ideas of mission had make them feel that those nonwhites are inferior. 

In conclusion, the relationship between white Europeans and nonwhite in 17th century is poor. The local Indians helped with the settlement of European immigrants when they first arrived at the new continent. However, these new settlers did not feel grateful for the native Indians. Instead, they tried to conquer them and dominate the new continents. After the arrival of black people, they regarded them as inferior people and their discrimination towards them appeared. The reasons for the relationship between white Europeans and nonwhites are three. They are white Europeans’ firm belief in the idea of racial superiority, the change of slavery system and the white Europeans’ sense of mission. 

第三个原因是欧洲白人的使命感。它的核心思想是入侵是合理的。欧洲白人相信他们是被上帝选中的,有自己的使命。1620年,一群清教徒乘坐“五月花号”到达北美,美国历史从此翻开了新的一页。这些清教徒被迫逃到这块新大陆,因为他们的家乡受到宗教迫害。然而,他们并不感激印第安人在新地方的帮助。相反,他们雄心勃勃地想证明,他们是被上帝选中的,被赋予了天赋和智慧。他们确实在这块新大陆上取得了成就。在他们看来,其他国家的利益并不重要。他们的使命感让他们觉得那些非白人是低人一等的。
 
 
 
总之,17世纪欧洲白人和非白人的关系很差。当欧洲移民第一次到达新大陆时,当地的印第安人帮助他们定居下来。然而,这些新移民并不感激当地的印第安人。相反,他们试图征服它们,统治新的大陆。黑人到来后,他们把黑人视为下等人,对黑人的歧视也出现了。欧洲白人和非白人之间的关系有三个原因。他们是欧洲白人对种族优越感的坚定信念、奴隶制的改变以及欧洲白人的使命感。

Reference
Jordan, Winthrop D. White Over Black. New York: Chape1 Hi11, 1982.

Thompson, Kenneth W. Traditions and Values in Politics and Diplomacy. Louisiana:Louisiana State University Press, 1992.

Bernard  Bailyn. The  Great  republic:A  History  of  the  American  People.Boston:little,Brown  and  Company,1977.

C.B.MacPerson. The  Political  Theory  of  Possessive  Individualism: Hobbes To  Locke. America: Oxford  University  Press,1962.


Ralph  H.Gabriel.The  course  of  American  Democratic  Thought: An Intellectual History Since 1815. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1940. 

参考
 
乔丹,温斯洛普D.白色的黑色。纽约:第11章,1982年。
 
政治与外交的传统与价值观。《路易斯安那州:路易斯安那州立大学出版社》,1992年。
 
伯纳德·贝林。《伟大的共和国:美国人民的历史》。波士顿:little, Brown和公司,1977年版。
 
C.B.MacPerson。占有个人主义的政治理论:霍布斯对洛克的看法。美国:牛津大学出版社,1962。
 
拉尔夫H.Gabriel。《美国民主思想历程:1815年以来的思想史》。纽约:罗纳德出版社,1940年。

《白与黑》Report范文http://www.0592w.com/Reportfanwen/fanwen540.html

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