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摘要:中国水力发电的使用report范文The Use of Hydropower in China 这是一篇水力发电对于生态环境和社会贡献的调查报告,报告中指出水力发电的生产设备是非常便宜的,但是建立一个新的大坝却很贵,总体......

中国水力发电的使用report范文 The Use of Hydropower in China 

 这是一篇水力发电对于生态环境和社会贡献的调查报告,报告中指出水力发电的生产设备是非常便宜的,但是建立一个新的大坝却很贵,总体上,建设大坝的优点大于缺点,但利用水力发电也需要考虑周围的环境。建造水坝可以减少由于暴雨径流和侵蚀带来的危害。因此,它们必须强大到足以对抗地震或风暴等自然灾害的冲击。

It is pointed out in the report that the production equipment of hydropower generation is very cheap, but the construction of a new dam is very expensive. On the whole, the advantages of building a dam outweigh the disadvantages, but the utilization of hydropower also needs to consider the surrounding environment. Building DAMS can reduce damage from storm runoff and erosion. Therefore, they must be strong enough to withstand the impact of natural disasters such as earthquakes or storms.
 
 For thousands of years, hydropower has been widely used by hardworking people in various fields such as grinding grain, sawing lumber, transporting goods and so on. In the recent centuries, hydropower is more and more utilized to produce electricity. Specifically, water behind the dam flows down to the power house through a large pipe called the penstock. In the power house, kinds of electric generators are placed. When the water comes through the generators, its elevation becomes lower and its speed is reduced. Wheels in the generator are turned around by the water flow and the gravitational potential energy can be converted to electrical energy according to the electromagnetic induction.

  Take China as an example. In 2013, the total amount of the electrical energy needs of the whole society is 5322.3 billion kWh. This is a very big number indeed. The Three Gorges Dam’s installed capacity is 22 thousand MW, and it can produce 84.7 billion kWh for one year. Taking the statistics above, we can see if we want to provide various fractions of the needed energy by hydropower alone, we need about 63 dams, which all have the same size like the Three Gorges Dam. While this biggest dam created a reservoir of 625 km long, 2000 meters the most wide. Its total area can be 10 thousand square kilometers. 63 dams like this one would take almost two-thirds area of China. It is almost an impossible mission, with the statistics above being taken. Compared to the 2.4% in 2008, this estimate is accurate because the total consumption of China rose from 3433.4 billion kWh to 5322.3 billion kWh. Only for 5 years, the total amount has gone up so quickly, which told to us that it is difficult to meet the need by hydropower output alone.

千百年来,勤劳的人们在磨谷、锯木、运输货物等各个领域广泛使用水电。近几个世纪来,人们越来越多地利用水力发电。具体来说,大坝后面的水通过一根叫做压力管的大管道流向电站。在动力室内,放置了各种发电机。当水通过发电机时,它的高度会降低,速度也会降低。发电机的车轮被水流带动,重力势能可以根据电磁感应转化为电能。
 
以中国为例。2013年,全社会对电能的需求总量为53223亿千瓦时。这确实是一个很大的数字。三峡大坝的装机容量为2.2万兆瓦,一年的发电量为847亿千瓦时。根据上面的统计,我们可以看到,如果我们想提供单靠水力发电所需能源的不同部分,我们大约需要63座大坝,这些大坝的大小都和三峡大坝一样。而这个最大的大坝创造了一个625公里长的水库,最宽2000米。其总面积可达1万平方公里。63座这样的大坝将占据中国近三分之二的面积。根据上面的统计数据,这几乎是一个不可能完成的任务。与2008年的2.4%相比,这一估计是准确的,因为中国的总耗电量从34334亿千瓦时上升到53223亿千瓦时。仅仅5年时间,总量就增长如此之快,说明单靠水电产量很难满足需求。
 

  Although the hydroelectric plants do not pollute the environment, they do influence the environment around a lot. First of all, the dam will result in a large area being flooded. Tens of thousands of residents have to move from what they have lived for dozens of years to a strange place. Maybe it means starting a new life for the youth, but this would really be sadness for the old.  Still take the Three Gorges Dam as an example. About 1.2 million people are displaced and hundreds of cultural treasures are inundated because of the Three Gorges project. This is a big damage to Chinese treasures. What's more, over 10 thousand square kilometers being flooded has, been a disaster to local animals and plants. On one hand, the water behind the dam provides a large recreational area, which is good for promoting the economic development. On the other hand, local habitat is eliminated for animals and plants. Birds fly away to search for trees; predators run farther to look for food; fishes are trapped in the reservoir with no freedom. Last but not least, still water is likely to cause health problems. Pollutants produced by the large cities upstream being trapped in the reservoir is the major incentive to some debilitating diseases.

虽然水力发电厂不污染环境,但它们确实对周围的环境造成了很大的影响。首先,大坝会导致大面积的洪水。成千上万的居民不得不从他们居住了几十年的地方搬到一个陌生的地方。也许对年轻人来说,这意味着开始新的生活,但对老年人来说,这真的很悲哀。还是以三峡大坝为例。由于三峡工程,大约120万人流离失所,数百种文化瑰宝被淹没。这是对中国宝藏的巨大破坏。更重要的是,超过1万平方公里被洪水淹没,对当地的动植物来说是一场灾难。一方面,大坝后面的水提供了一个很大的休闲区域,这有利于促进经济发展。另一方面,当地的动物和植物的栖息地消失了。鸟儿飞去找树;捕食者跑得更远寻找食物;鱼被困在水库里,没有自由。最后但并非最不重要的,静水可能会引起健康问题。上游大城市产生的污染物被困在水库中,是引起某些使人衰弱的疾病的主要诱因。

  As we all know, production of electricity from hydro facilities is very inexpensive, but building a new dam really costs a lot. To stop the flow, it needs a large number of cement, steels and human resources. It will be a tough mission before the dam is built down. Also, offering new shelters to the original inhabitants will be a huge task for the government. Great energy is needed during this process. Overall, the advantages of building a dam outweigh the disadvantages. However, there are still   some limitations associated to hydropower development. A large output hydropower output is achieved using either a high head or a low head with a large volume of water flow. This is the most important thing because if the water flow cannot even push forward the wheel, electricity will never be produced. Making use of hydropower should also take the environment around into consideration. We mustn’t achieve the economic benefits at the cost of the destruction of the ecological environment. Building dams can reduce runoff and erosion due to torrential rains. However, they must be strong enough to fight against the pressure of water, earthquake or storm. If not, it would be another disaster to people.

众所周知,水力发电成本很低,但修建一个新大坝的成本却很高。为了阻止水流,需要大量的水泥、钢材和人力资源。在大坝建成之前,这将是一项艰巨的任务。同时,为原有的居民提供新的庇护所对政府来说将是一项巨大的任务。在这个过程中需要大量的能量。总的来说,建大坝的利大于弊。然而,水电开发仍存在一定的局限性。利用大流量的高水头或低水头来实现大出力水力发电。这是最重要的事情,因为如果水流甚至不能推动车轮前进,电力将永远不会产生。利用水电还应该考虑到周围的环境。我们不能以破坏生态环境为代价来获得经济效益。修建大坝可以减少暴雨造成的径流和侵蚀。然而,它们必须足够强大,能够抵抗水、地震或风暴的压力。否则,这将是人类的另一场灾难。

  To meet electrical energy needs in China, we need to build 63 biggest dams. Not to mention whether there are enough rivers or lakes to provide hydropower, building so many dams will make great impacts on the environment nearby. Changing environment easily may cause some unknown effects. Moreover, with the development of economy, the total amount of electrical energy we need is rising year by year, which means we have to build more and more dams. It is impossible to rely on hydroelectric generation alone. Although the USA has more lakes or rivers, he does need more electricity, too. So it is in the same situation as China. In one word, hydropower cannot be expected to meet electrical energy needs in the US and in China in the coming decades.  

为了满足中国的电力需求,我们需要建造63座最大的水坝。更不用说是否有足够的河流或湖泊提供水力发电,建造这么多的大坝将对附近的环境造成很大的影响。容易改变的环境可能会造成一些未知的影响。此外,随着经济的发展,我们需要的电能总量正在逐年上升,这意味着我们必须建造越来越多的大坝。单靠水力发电是不可能的。虽然美国有更多的湖泊和河流,他也需要更多的电力。所以它和中国的情况一样。总而言之,水电在未来几十年无法满足美国和中国的电力需求。

Note: Some data in the text come from the source in the given book. 注:文中一些数据来自所给书的来源。

中国水力发电的使用report范文http://www.0592w.com/Reportfanwen/fanwen541.html

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