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摘要:亚特兰大复兴报告范文 Atlanta Renaissance report model essay Revitalizing Atlantas economy, civil rights decided to undertake a massive underground Atlanta Revitalization project. Underground Atlanta is a great success that will bring you mi......

亚特兰大复兴报告范文

Atlanta Renaissance report model essay
Revitalizing Atlanta's economy, civil rights decided to undertake a massive underground Atlanta Revitalization project. Underground Atlanta is a great success that will bring you millions of visitors each year and make Atlanta a world-famous convention center. However, with the overall economic depression, underground Atlanta was finally closed down and criminalized due to the worsening environmental degradation.
振兴经济的亚特兰大,公民权力决定进行一次大规模的地下亚特兰大复兴项目。 地下亚特兰大是一个伟大的成功,会给你带来每年数百万的游客,使亚特兰大成为举世闻名的会展中心。然而,随着整体经济萧条,地下亚特兰大因为不断恶化的环境恶化,最后关闭和犯罪。
To revitalize the economy of Atlanta, the civic authority decides to conduct a large-scale rejuvenation project of Underground Atlanta. 
Underground Atlanta was a great success which brings millions visitors every year and makes Atlanta a world-famous convention center. However, with the overall economy depression, Underground Atlanta was deteriorated and finally closed due to the worsening environment and crime. 
In order to revitalize the economy of Atlanta, local authority collected opinions from all walks of life. Some stakeholders think rejuvenation of Underground Atlanta is the best way to revitalize the economy. On the other hand, it was not a perfect plan. First, it involved massive capital investment from city. The source of the funds remains a question. And other organizations would only invest a small proportion, which indicated lack of confidence to this project. Second, unemployed people are supposed to get specialized vocational training rather than just take unskilled or less-skilled job. 
为了振兴亚特兰大的经济,市政当局决定进行大规模的亚特兰大地下复兴项目。
“亚特兰大地下城”是一项巨大的成功,每年吸引数百万游客,使亚特兰大成为世界闻名的会议中心。然而,随着整体经济的萧条,由于环境和犯罪的恶化,地下亚特兰大被恶化并最终关闭。
为了振兴亚特兰大的经济,地方当局收集了各行各业的意见。一些利益相关者认为振兴亚特兰大地铁是振兴经济的最佳途径。另一方面,这也不是一个完美的计划。首先,它涉及到来自城市的大量资本投资。资金的来源仍然是个问题。而其他组织只会投资一小部分,这表明对这个项目缺乏信心。第二,失业人员应该接受专门的职业培训,而不是仅仅从事无技能或低技能的工作。
Therefore, transforming Underground Atlanta into a creative hub is highly recommended. First, the old blocks carrying Atlanta history could inspire them to innovatively re-decorate this place. Second, the residing of creative companies, workshops or studios could not bring new capital and dynamism to this area, but also create a lot of skilled and unskilled jobs for Atlanta. Through introducing sunrise industries, Underground Atlanta could consume little investment, but become a dynamic creative hub which brings sustainable visitor flow and revenue.
因此,高度推荐将亚特兰大地下改造成一个创意中心。首先,承载着亚特兰大历史的老街区可以激励他们创新地重新装饰这个地方。其次,居住在创意公司、工作室或工作室不能给这个地区带来新的资本和活力,但也为亚特兰大创造了许多有技能和无技能的工作。通过引入朝阳产业,亚特兰大地下城可以消耗很少的投资,但可以成为一个充满活力的创意中心,带来可持续的客流和收入。
A report on Underground Atlanta Rejuvenation
As a convention center, Underground Atlanta was a great success to facilitate the convention function of Atlanta. With the economic depression and the spread of criminal activities, the Underground Atlanta suffered a blight and turned into a not-favored site in the city. To boost the economy, some civic councils and stakeholders were convinced that rejuvenate the Underground Atlanta could give impetus to the economy which could push the employment rate at the same time. However, from the perspective of economic security and sustainability, redevelopment of Underground Atlanta is not the only method to revitalize the economy and employment of Atlanta. Many underlying risks could come out during the process of Underground Atlanta rejuvenation.
一份关于地下亚特兰大复兴的报告
作为会议中心,Underground Atlanta在促进亚特兰大会议功能方面取得了巨大的成功。随着经济萧条和犯罪活动的蔓延,地下亚特兰大遭受重创,成为城市中不受欢迎的场所。为了促进经济发展,一些市政委员会和利益相关者相信重振亚特兰大地铁能够推动经济发展,同时也能提高就业率。然而,从经济安全和可持续性的角度来看,重新开发地下亚特兰大并不是振兴亚特兰大经济和就业的唯一途径。许多潜在的风险可能会出现在地下亚特兰大复兴的过程中。

1. What the reasons and problems are 1. 原因和问题是什么

Underground Atlanta was a great success in the last two decades, no matter economically or socially. It brought a significant revenue and reputation to this city. In the peak time, it host 3,500,000 visitors, which created $17 million revenue to the city. Atlanta, as a world-famous convention city, Underground Atlanta complemented its positioning which provided entertainment facilities to the visitor every year. However, due to multiple reasons, it experienced a decline since 1970s and finally closed in 1982 and became a ghost city after working hours and on weekends. It was a huge loss to Atlanta authority and local people. No more revenue could be generated and local people lose a place to relax in their spare time. Witnessing the ups and downs of this area, what are the reasons of Underground Atlanta becoming a blight? 
在过去的二十年里,无论在经济上还是社会上,“地下亚特兰大”都取得了巨大的成功。它为这座城市带来了巨大的收入和声誉。在高峰期,它接待了350万游客,为该市创造了1700万美元的收入。亚特兰大作为世界著名的会议城市,每年都为游客提供娱乐设施。然而,由于多种原因,自20世纪70年代以来,它经历了一次衰退,最终在1982年关闭,成为一个下班后和周末的鬼城。对亚特兰大当局和当地民众来说,这是一个巨大的损失。没有更多的收入可以产生,当地人失去了一个地方放松他们的业余时间。目睹这一地区的起起落落,是什么原因使地下亚特兰大成为一个枯萎?
First, the economic depression in 1970s is the main reason of this change. The economic downturn led to a less demand of conventions and entertainment facilities.  The decreasing numbers of visitors to this area not only cut down the sales revenue, but also decreased the tax income of the city government. 
Second, a lack of proper and efficient management of Underground Atlanta, which led to a spread of crime in this area. People were not willing to stay or visit Underground Atlanta for the sake of their personal safety. At the same time, lowering the age for drinking made pubs and bars noisy which also resulted in the loss of customers. 
Third, a shortage of capital made government and local authority not able to keep this place in order. Increasing crime rate scares the visitors away from this area. However, if the order of this area was retained, an additional force of police would be required. An extra amount of investment should be put in Underground Atlanta. 
Fourth, losing control of property and operations. Due to the inefficient working models of local authority, the supervision of property and operations were shifted to other parties. 
Fifth, the construction of MARTA and Five Points did release the traffic pressure to some extent, however, on the other hand, owing to the thoughtless inappropriate civic planning, it damaged some of the tourist attractions alongside, which also resulted in the loss of revenue.
Considering the reasons above, redeveloping Underground Atlanta was not the best solution. The root of this problem cannot be solved simply by rejuvenation.
首先,20世纪70年代的经济萧条是这种变化的主要原因。经济衰退导致对会议和娱乐设施的需求减少。这个地区游客数量的减少不仅减少了销售收入,也减少了市政府的税收收入。
其次,亚特兰大地下组织缺乏适当和有效的管理,导致了该地区犯罪的蔓延。人们不愿意停留或访问地下亚特兰大为了他们的个人安全。与此同时,饮酒年龄的降低使得酒吧和酒吧吵闹,也导致了顾客的流失。
第三,资金短缺使得政府和地方当局无法维持这个地方的秩序。不断上升的犯罪率把游客吓跑了。但是,如果维持这一地区的秩序,就需要增加一支警察部队。额外的投资应该投入到亚特兰大的地下。
第四,失去对财产和经营的控制。由于地方政府低效的工作模式,对财产和经营的监督转移到其他方面。
第五,MARTA和Five Points的建设在一定程度上缓解了交通压力,但另一方面,由于轻率不恰当的城市规划,破坏了周边的一些旅游景点,也造成了收入的损失。
考虑到以上原因,重新开发地下亚特兰大并不是最好的解决方案。这个问题的根源不能简单地通过振兴来解决。
First, the economy and financing issue. Rejuvenating Underground Atlanta required a large amount of capital, in which a large proportion would come from loans and bonds. In order to rehabilitate Underground Atlanta, ADDA would issue project revenue bonds, the total amount of which was approximately $58 million. And  a proportion of these funds would be used to construct all the noncommercial components of the project, the remainder would be lent to the private developer to help finance the commercial aspects of the project. Even though only a proportion of the bond proceeds would be lent to the partnership, the partnership would be liable to pay the authority all fund it needed in excess of Debt Service Reserve Fund interest earning and parking revenues to repay the bonds. The term and the rate is 9.5% of 30 years, which was at a relatively high level. Moreover, there was no other funds involved. As estimated by the American City Corporation, net revenue per square foot of $600 was forecast. In this case, if the revenue could not meet $600, the capital chain would be interrupted and the rejuvenation work would be forced to stop. Then the previous investment would be a huge waste. It was unreasonable to waste taxpayers’ money. On the other hand, social investment could be a major partner in this project. If the social investors thought this project was highly promising and profitable, they could put the capital in rather than using taxpayers’ money.
一是经济和融资问题。振兴亚特兰大地下城需要大量的资金,其中很大一部分将来自贷款和债券。为了恢复亚特兰大地下,ADDA将发行项目收入债券,总额约为5 800万美元。其中一部分资金将用于建设该项目的所有非商业部分,其余资金将借给私人开发商,帮助为该项目的商业部分融资。即使只有一部分债券收益会贷给合伙企业,合伙企业也有责任向当局支付它所需要的全部资金,这些资金是债务偿还准备金基金利息收入和停车收入以外的部分,用以偿还债券。期限和比率是30年的9.5%,这是一个比较高的水平。此外,没有其他基金参与。据美国城市公司估计,每平方英尺净收入为600美元。在这种情况下,如果收入不能达到600美元,资本链将被中断,振兴工作将被迫停止。那么之前的投资将是一种巨大的浪费。浪费纳税人的钱是不合理的。另一方面,社会投资可以成为这个项目的主要合作伙伴。如果社会投资者认为这个项目很有前途而且有利可图,他们就可以投入资金,而不是用纳税人的钱。
Second, it was said that 3,000 job vacancies of private sectors would be created. The majority of job opportunities would be in retailing and food service so they would be available to relatively unskilled or less-skilled people. However, the high unemployment rate was just partly due to the desertedness of Underground Atlanta. As a matter of fact, the downturn of the economy and the inadequacy of vocational education were the underlying reasons. Rejuvenating Underground Atlanta would not be the placebo to this issue. Local authority were supposed to shoulder the responsibility to provide vocational training to unskilled people, rather than just let them work in unskilled field. Training unskilled workers could not only elevate their competency in the society in the long-term, but also contribute to the sustainable economic development in the district. By doing this, in the short-run, skilled workers could be cultivated to fill the job vacancies and make a good living through specialized work. Furthermore, they could lead a dignified life then. In the long-term, it could eradicate the problem of crime and poverty once for all. 
Third, Underground Atlanta had already set an image of crime, physical threat and decline in the society. Rooted in the heart of the visitors, it was difficult to change the set image in a short period. To gain the visitors back, the government had to spend much energy and capital to publicize the redeveloped Underground Atlanta and set a brand-new image of it, however, the result of the publicity could not be guaranteed. 
第二,据说将为私营部门创造3000个职位空缺。大部分工作机会将在零售业和食品服务业,因此这些工作机会将提供给相对没有技能或技能较低的人。然而,高失业率的部分原因是地下亚特兰大的荒漠性。事实上,经济的低迷和职业教育的不足是其根本原因。振兴地下亚特兰大不会是这个问题的安慰剂。地方政府应该承担起为无技能的人提供职业培训的责任,而不是仅仅让他们在无技能的领域工作。对非技术工人进行培训,从长远来看,不仅可以提高他们的社会竞争力,而且有利于本区经济的可持续发展。通过这样做,在短期内可以培养熟练工人来填补职位空缺,并通过专业工作过上良好的生活。此外,他们可以过上有尊严的生活。从长远来看,它可以彻底消除犯罪和贫困问题。
第三,地下亚特兰大已经树立了犯罪、人身威胁和社会衰落的形象。扎根于参观者心中,很难在短时间内改变既定形象。为了挽回游客,政府不得不花费大量的精力和资金来宣传重新开发的亚特兰大地下城,树立全新的形象,但是宣传的效果并不能保证。
Fourth, redeveloping Underground Atlanta aimed to attract visitors and re-injected dynamism to this area again. However, wealthy people of Atlanta and its surroundings were not willing to mingle with people from other social classes or other races. Therefore, this project could not achieve the goal set by the planners.
Fifth, due to ill-considered civic plan of Atlanta, MARTA and Five Points had already ruined the tourist sites along its route. No matter what investment would be made, reestablishing Underground Atlanta could not restore these old tourist attractions. The loss of its old charm made it not necessary to reinvest Underground Atlanta. People would not visit Underground Atlanta for its convenient transportation only.
To revitalize the economy, a full-fledged development plan should be carefully designed rather than simply re-invest in the unpredictable, large-scale, high-profile rejuvenation plan.
第四,重新开发“地下亚特兰大”,吸引游客,再次为该地区注入活力。然而,亚特兰大及其周边地区的富人不愿意与其他社会阶层或其他种族的人交往。因此,该项目无法达到规划者设定的目标。
第五,由于亚特兰大的城市规划考虑不周,玛尔塔和五点镇已经破坏了沿途的旅游景点。无论投资多少,重建地下亚特兰大都无法恢复这些古老的旅游景点。失去了昔日的魅力,就没有必要再投资亚特兰大地铁了。人们不会仅仅因为交通方便就去亚特兰大地铁。
为了振兴经济,应该仔细设计一个成熟的发展计划,而不是简单地再投资于不可预测的、大规模的、高调的振兴计划。
2. The evaluation criteria of Underground Atlanta project
To evaluate whether a development could work in this area. The following criteria must be taken into consideration.
First, sustainable economic development. To keep an area economically alive and dynamic, a sustainable economic impetus should be offered. A sustainable and stable economic development could not only bring healthy business but also create job opportunities. 
Second, eradication of crime and poverty. The existence of crime, to some extent, was partly due to poverty and lack of skill education. Unemployed population who were living in poverty was one of the major reasons of the social instability. To solve this problem, the key was to offer skill training and make them eligible to meet employers’ requirements. The more qualified the personnel are, the more prosperous economy they will create. At the same time, from the long-term perspective, they could gain a better living condition with skills.
Third, the attraction to the target group. Rejuvenating Underground Atlanta aimed to attract people to visit and consume in this area. However, the set perception of this area was about crime and physical threat, decline. Through restoration of Underground Atlanta could not easily shift its old image and win this area a bright future
Fourth, the investment made should be highly cost-effective. The massive capital invested on this project should be well distributed and calculated in case of any extra changes. Once the project started, whether the investment could make profits accordingly must be evaluated carefully.
Fifth, a stable cash flow of the project. To start a rejuvenation project like Underground Atlanta scale requires stable, massive and strong financial support. Any interruptions of the capital could cause the failure of the whole project. A thoroughly financing plan should be designed and testified before the project. The source of the capital and the reserve fund should be confirmed before the project. If the projects involved loans or bonds from other organizations or institutions, the capability of repayment should be considered and carefully examined. To guarantee the cash flow was a must for this large-scale project. Sustainable and stable capital source must be ensured before the initiation of the project.

2. 亚特兰大地下工程的评价标准

评估在这一领域的发展是否可行。必须考虑以下标准。
第一,经济可持续发展。要保持一个地区的经济活力和活力,就必须提供可持续的经济动力。可持续稳定的经济发展不仅可以带来健康的商业,还可以创造就业机会。
第二,消除犯罪和贫困。犯罪的存在,在一定程度上是由于贫困和缺乏技能教育。生活贫困的失业人口是造成社会不稳定的主要原因之一。要解决这个问题,关键是提供技能培训,使他们符合雇主的要求。人才的素质越高,创造的经济就越繁荣。同时,从长远来看,他们可以通过技能获得更好的生活条件。
第三,对目标群体的吸引力。振兴地下亚特兰大旨在吸引人们来此参观和消费。然而,这个地区的固有观念是犯罪和身体威胁,衰退。通过重建地下亚特兰大不可能轻易改变它的旧形象,为这个地区赢得光明的未来
第四,投资的成本效益要高。投入在这个项目上的大量资金应该合理分配和计算,以防有任何额外的变化。一旦项目启动,投资是否能产生相应的利润,必须仔细评估。
五是项目现金流稳定。像地下亚特兰大这样的复兴项目需要稳定、大规模、强有力的资金支持。资金的任何中断都可能导致整个项目的失败。在项目开始前,应设计并证实一份全面的融资计划。资金和备用金的来源应在项目开始前确定。如果项目涉及其他组织或机构的贷款或债券,应考虑和仔细审查偿还能力。保证这个大型项目的现金流是必须的。项目启动前必须确保资金来源的持续稳定。
3. What other options we have 
To revitalize Atlanta, there were other options which did not require much investment, but could balance economic development and convention industry.
To fully utilize the old blocks of Underground Atlanta, the property could be leased to artists or people who worked in the creative industries. Two decades’ development of this area left many deep historical and cultural marks which was a magnet to the artists. They could renovate the old blocks and transform them into innovative workshops or studios. 
As the Underground Atlanta was deserted after a huge economic success, Underground Atlanta itself carried a rich history of Atlanta development. As a convention city, making slight changes and turning it into a museum which displayed the growth path of the city and this area could also regain its status among the tourists. 

3.我们还有什么别的选择

振兴亚特兰大,还有其他的选择,这些选择不需要太多的投资,但可以平衡经济发展和会展业。
为了充分利用亚特兰大地下的旧街区,可以将房产租给艺术家或在创意产业工作的人。20年的发展给这个地区留下了许多深刻的历史文化印记,这些印记深深吸引着艺术家们。他们可以翻新旧街区,把它们改造成创新的工作室或工作室。
随着“地下亚特兰大”在取得巨大经济成功后被废弃,“地下亚特兰大”本身就承载着亚特兰大发展的丰富历史。作为一个会议城市,稍加改变,变成一个展示城市发展路径的博物馆,这片区域也可以重新获得它在游客中的地位。
4. Policy evaluation 
The policies concerning the rejuvenation of Underground Atlanta remained to be discussed. Effective and enforceable policies were necessary to guarantee the project development.
First, to initiate this project required massive capital and constant cash flow. The willingness of taxpayers to invest in this project should be taken into serious consideration. An opinion poll should be done before taking action. And moreover, whether taxpayers could retrieve their investment back in an appropriate period of time remained a question. 
Furthermore, based on the market principle, if it was proven to be a profitable project, social companies and organizations would seize this opportunity and be eager to charter this project as a whole package. However, judging from the current situation, social capital holders were still holding a wait-and-see attitude. Their hesitation demonstrated clearly that this project was not being looked promising by the market. It was in fact not a recommended project.
Second, Underground Atlanta was a slum now which was abandoned by visitors and local people as well. Thanks to the violent incidents and frequent criminal activities in this area, it had already set a negative image of crime, physical threat and decline. The public perception of Underground Atlanta could not be easily shifted in a short time. If this place was rejuvenated and opened to public again, to guarantee the security of the visitors, a large numbers of additional private and city police must be required as an extra measure. It burdened the taxpayers more heavily.
Third, in Atlanta, there was also existing a most delicate racial problem. The people who own the disposable income were not willing to consume in a complicated environment. Black people and white people in this area could not get along well. Therefore, even Underground Atlanta was re-opened, only half of the city population would be attracted. The sales revenue in this area still could not be guaranteed. 
Fourth, lowered drinking age makes bars and pubs were noisy. The application of this rule pushed the target customers away from these entertainment facilities. To abandon this rule would require a large amount of time. During this time, the income of this area would be under stress.

4. 政策评估

关于复兴地下亚特兰大的政策仍有待讨论。有效和可执行的政策是保证项目发展的必要条件。
首先,启动这个项目需要大量的资金和持续的现金流。应该认真考虑纳税人是否愿意投资这个项目。在采取行动之前,应该先进行一次民意调查。此外,纳税人能否在适当的时期收回投资仍是个问题。
此外,根据市场原则,如果它被证明是一个有利可图的项目,社会公司和组织将会抓住这个机会,并渴望将这个项目作为一个整体来包办。但从目前情况来看,社会资本持有者仍持观望态度。他们的犹豫清楚地表明,市场并不看好这个项目。事实上,这并不是一个值得推荐的项目。
其次,亚特兰大地下曾经是一个贫民窟,现在游客和当地人都抛弃了它。由于这一地区的暴力事件和频繁的犯罪活动,它已经树立了犯罪、人身威胁和衰退的负面形象。公众对地下亚特兰大的看法不可能在短时间内轻易改变。如果这个地方恢复活力并再次向公众开放,为了保证游客的安全,必须增加大量的私人和城市警察作为额外措施。它加重了纳税人的负担。
第三,在亚特兰大也存在着一个非常微妙的种族问题。拥有可支配收入的人不愿意在一个复杂的环境下消费。这个地区的黑人和白人相处得不好。因此,即使地下亚特兰大重新开放,也只能吸引一半的城市人口。这个地区的销售收入仍然不能保证。
第四,降低饮酒年龄使得酒吧和酒吧变得吵闹。这一规则的应用使得目标客户远离了这些娱乐设施。放弃这一规则将需要大量的时间。在此期间,该地区的收入将面临压力。
5. Displaying alternatives and selecting among them
Leasing the whole property out to innovation individuals and companies, or turning it into a history museum after slight changes could be two good options which could lower the investment amount and meanwhile, receive even better social and economic effects.
From the perspective of overall healthy and sound development of Atlanta in the long-term, letting out the premise to creative industries was the best option so far. 
As Underground Atlanta was an old tourist attraction in last 20 years. This place could be transformed into a new creative hub or office space which targeted the artists. Artists could creatively rejuvenate this place based on its old structure and culture and turn it into an artistic resort. By attracting creative industries which are of high-added value, it could bring new dynamism to this city, meanwhile, massive capital and talented people would follow the creative business to Atlanta. Furthermore, many skilled and less-skilled job opportunities could also be created. 
Due to the instinct characteristics of creative industries have, the entertainment facilities, such as bars, restaurants, food stands, would also follow their steps and form a healthy economic ecosystem. All the creative industries-concerning facilities would be equipped then. Tourists and visitors would be attracted to this distinctive hub.
To cater to the development of creative industries, government and social vocational academy could apply this opportunity to provide proper and corresponding training to the unskilled and less-skilled people. With acquiring living skills, the unemployed population could gain a good living through legitimate work, rather than commit crime or live in a miserable condition. 
By adopting this approach, the overall economy and the image of Atlanta would be elevated to a new high level. Meanwhile, with the growing of creative industries, Atlanta could not only gain its convention center status back, but also gain revenues from the emerging creative industries. It would be become a win-win no matter in the long term or in the short period. 

5. 显示选项并在其中进行选择

将整个房产租给创新的个人和公司,或者稍加改动后将其改造成历史博物馆是两个不错的选择,既可以降低投资金额,又可以获得更好的社会和经济效益。
从亚特兰大整体长期健康发展的角度来看,将前提下放给创意产业是目前最好的选择。
因为在过去的20年里,亚特兰大地铁是一个古老的旅游景点。这个地方可以转变为一个新的创意中心或办公空间,以艺术家为目标。艺术家们可以在这个古老的建筑和文化的基础上创造性地复兴这个地方,把它变成一个艺术胜地。通过吸引高附加值的创意产业,可以给这座城市带来新的活力,同时,大量的资本和人才会跟随创意产业来到亚特兰大。此外,还可以创造许多高技能和低技能的工作机会。
由于创意产业的本能特性,酒吧、餐厅、小吃摊等娱乐设施也会跟随创意产业的脚步,形成健康的经济生态系统。届时,所有与创意产业相关的设施都将配备完毕。游客会被吸引到这个独特的中心。
为配合创意产业的发展,政府及社会职业学院可藉此机会,为无技能及低技能人士提供适当及相应的培训。获得了生活技能后,失业人口可以通过合法的工作获得良好的生活,而不是犯罪或生活在悲惨的条件下。
通过这种方式,亚特兰大的整体经济和形象将被提升到一个新的高度。与此同时,随着创意产业的发展,亚特兰大不仅可以重新获得会议中心的地位,还可以从新兴的创意产业中获得收入。无论是长期还是短期,这都是双赢的。
Source from Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning 来源于政策分析和规划的基本方法

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