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摘要:Essay代写范文-爱人间的回忆History in Lovers Memory 本文是一篇Essay代写范文,题目为History in lovers memory,文章讲述历史的有趣之处在于它可以接受解释。由于文化,价值观和宗教的差异,可以用多......

Essay代写范文-爱人间的回忆 History in Lover's Memory



本文是一篇Essay代写范文,题目为History in lover's memory,文章讲述历史的有趣之处在于它可以接受解释。由于文化,价值观和宗教的差异,可以用多种方式来感知一个历史事件。在阿根廷-墨西哥解放哲学家恩里克·杜塞尔(Enrique Dussel)的论文美国被发现或被入侵》中,他通过询问美国是被发现还是被入侵的问题来讨论历史的主体性。

What is so interesting about history is that it is open to interpretation. One historical event can be perceived in many ways due to differences in culture, values and religion. In Argentine-Mexican liberation philosopher Enrique Dussel’s essay Was America Discovered or Invaded, he discussed the subjectivity of history through asking the question of whether America was discovered or invaded. His essay analyzed several interpretations of this historical event from the viewpoint of European people and ingenious Indian people to make a point that history is not as objective as one might think.

历史的有趣之处在于它可以被解释。由于文化、价值观和宗教的差异,一个历史事件可以以多种方式被感知。在阿根廷墨西哥解放哲学家恩里克·杜塞尔的《美国被发现还是被入侵》一文中,他通过提出美国是被发现还是被入侵的问题来探讨历史的主体性。他的文章从欧洲人和聪明的印第安人的角度分析了对这一历史事件的几种解释,指出历史并不像人们想象的那样客观。

The author gave us an unique concept of seeing history from “above” and “below” in the first paragraph, He wrote: “From the European point of view (from above), something was dis-covered; from the point of view of the inhabitants of the continent (from below), what we are really dealing with is an invasion by foreigners, by aliens, and by people from outside”1(126). Those who see history from above represent the powerful one at victorious side of the history. They take history as hostage with their own understanding and perception. However, those who see history from below are the oppressed and people whose side of story can hardly be heard and known.

在第一段中,作者给了我们一个从“上”和“下”看历史的独特概念,他写道:“从欧洲的角度(从上面看),有些东西被发现了;从大陆居民的角度(从下)来看,我们真正要对付的是外国人、外国人的入侵,来自外界的人“1(126)。那些从高处看历史的人代表着历史胜利的一方。他们以自己的理解力和感知力来劫持历史。然而,那些从下面看历史的人是被压迫者,他们的故事很难被听到和了解。

The author divided his essay into five parts with a different interpretation of how America came into being in each part. In the first part and second part, he gave an in-depth analysis of the subtleness between “invention” and “discovery”. Semantically speaking, the meanings of these two words are almost the same but they actually reflect quite different perceptions. The word “invention” means that “America was invented, we are dealing with an attempt to explain a being (Dasein) whose existence depends on the way that it is understood by Western culture” 2 (127). It is egocentric to see America, which has existed long before the arrival of Columbus, as an invention and the author vehemently stated that this view of thinking is nothing but self-deception. If this word is changed into “discovery”, it would be more positive because it at least “… presumes the prior existence of something which was covered and was not created from a vacuum…” 3(128). Although t seems that this view of history is more appropriate,to see historical event in this way is still not completely objective. The word “discovery” implies that its prior existent didn’t mean a thing until the day of its discovery and it still put emphasis on the people form “above”. As Fernandez de Oviedo stated: “These people of the (West) Indies, although rational and of the same race as those of the holy ark of Noah have become irrational and bestial because of their idolatries, sacrifices and devilish ceremonies”4, everything about ingenious Indian people is invalid and should be replaced by western value and convention.

作者把他的文章分为五个部分,每一部分对美国是如何产生的有不同的解释。在第一部分和第二部分中,他深入分析了“发明”与“发现”之间的微妙关系。从语义上讲,这两个词的意思几乎是一样的,但它们实际上反映了截然不同的看法。“发明”一词的意思是“美国被发明了,我们正在试图解释一个存在(此在),它的存在依赖于西方文化对它的理解方式”2(127)。把早在哥伦布到来之前就存在的美洲视为一种发明,是以自我为中心的。作者强烈地指出,这种思维观不过是自欺欺人。如果这个词被改成“发现”,它会更积极,因为它至少“……假定某个被覆盖的东西的存在,而不是从真空中创造出来的……”3(128)。虽然这种历史观似乎更为恰当,但用这种方式看待历史事件仍然不完全客观。“发现”一词意味着它以前的存在直到它被发现的那天才是一件事情,它仍然强调“上面”的人。正如费尔南德斯·德奥维多(Fernandez de Oviedo)所说:“这些(西)印度群岛的人虽然理性,种族与诺亚方舟的人相同,但由于他们的偶像崇拜、牺牲和邪恶的仪式,他们变得不理性和兽性。”,关于聪明的印度人民的一切都是无效的,应该被西方的价值观和习俗所取代。

Then in the third and fourth part, the author changed his perspective by viewing history form “below” and concluded that through “foreign invasion” and “conquest”, here comes the America. Putting these two views together is an interesting contrast. People who saw it as “foreign invasion” would fight against the invader for freedom, while those who saw European people coming to America as “conqueror” would think that the conquerors are divine and send by God to evangelize them. These two views may sound alike but they reflect totally opposite feeling and attitude towards this historical event. The former is anger while the latter is admiration. Then in the final part, a new view of “historical indemnification” was raised, appealing to the “conqueror” and “invader” to make things right. However, whether indemnification can be made for the damage they caused is unsure and the author stated that these countries were never really conquered or invaded since there were rebellions in the past and revolts in present to fight for the freedom of the opposed. In the end, the author gave his idea of how to see history, which is to view history through multi angles, especially from “below” in order to have a more clear awareness of history.

Personally speaking, I found Dussel’s theory to be quite different from other theories on history view. His theory sees history from views of both parties and more importantly, his theory analyzes in-depth the nuance of different views and feelings of people to reveal that history is actually multi-facets and he goes even deeper to explore the logic and reasons behind these different views of history. His theory focuses on the people, especially the people from “below”, instead of judging the right or wrong in history.

This essay reminds me of the different perception of the history between Japanese and Chinese. I couldn’t say for sure that who sees history form “above” and who from “below” since both countries suffered great pain in the war. When I took history class in school back in China, Japanese was depicted as a “vicious invader” in textbook and we were told that they committed hideous crime in China during the war. I think in Japan, their view of this part of history must be very different from us. There are still bickering or even tension between two countries over how to define this part of history. I think what matter is not dwelling on who is right or wrong in the past history but figuring out how to view our differences, come to the same page and respect each other’s view. As the author said in the last sentence in the essay: “A clear awareness of all this can come to us only from an historical conspectus which emerges from below”5(132). If applying this sentence to the situation between China and Japan, it would be “a clear awareness of all this can come to us only form an historical conspectus which emerges from common ground”. Not only for China and Japan, many countries still dispute over the right and wrong of the history. As this essay indicates, the viewing of history from different perspectives can be just the opposite. Because of that, what matter is not how we view history in the past but how we can move further and find common ground and mutual respect in the future; Instead of pointing finger at each other, we should ask such questions as how we can make amendments to victims and how to help each other in the process.

As Mark Twain said: “The very ink with which all history is written is merely fluid prejudice”6. Dussel’s theory in the essay also supports what Mark Twain has said. History is not static and one-sided. As time goes by, people’s perception and interpretation of history will change as the society develops and there will always be different views on history. History is in the eye of the beholder. There is nothing we can do about the subjectivity of history view, but what can we do is to open ourselves to the different interpretations of history and respect other for their view.

Works Cited

Dussel, Enrique. Was America Discovered or Invaded? Concilium 200 (1988): 126-134.   

Print.

Twain, Mark. “Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World.” New York: AMS

      Press, 1971. Print.    

然后在第三和第四部分,作者改变了视角,通过“以下”的历史形式,得出了通过“外敌入侵”和“征服”,美国来了的结论。将这两个视图放在一起是一个有趣的对比。那些视其为“外来入侵”的人会为自由而与侵略者战斗,而那些视其为“征服者”的欧洲人则会认为征服者是神,是上帝派来给他们传道的。这两种观点可能听起来很相似,但它们反映了对这一历史事件的完全相反的感受和态度。前者是愤怒,后者是钦佩。最后,提出了“历史赔偿”的新观点,呼吁“征服者”和“侵略者”纠正错误。然而,能否对它们造成的损害作出赔偿尚不确定,提交人指出,这些国家从未真正被征服或入侵,因为过去和现在都发生过为争取反对派的自由而进行的叛乱。最后,作者给出了自己看待历史的想法,即多角度看待历史,特别是从“下面”的角度来看待历史,从而对历史有更清晰的认识。
 
 
 
就我个人而言,我发现杜塞尔的历史观与其他理论有很大的不同。他的理论从双方的角度看历史,更重要的是,他的理论深入分析了人们不同观点和感受的细微差别,揭示了历史其实是多方面的,他更深入地探究了这些不同历史观背后的逻辑和原因。他的理论侧重于人民,特别是“下层人民”,而不是判断历史的对错。
 
 
 
这篇文章让我想起了日本人和中国人对历史的不同看法。我不能肯定地说,谁从“上”看历史,谁从“下”看历史,因为两国都在战争中遭受了巨大的痛苦。我在中国的学校上历史课的时候,课本上把日本人描述成“凶恶的侵略者”,还说他们在战争期间在中国犯下了可怕的罪行。我想,在日本,他们对这段历史的看法一定和我们非常不同。对于如何定义这段历史,两国之间仍然存在着争吵甚至紧张的关系。我认为,重要的不是历史上谁对谁错,而是如何看待分歧,如何走到一起,相互尊重。正如作者在文章的最后一句话中所说:“对这一切的清晰认识只能来自于从下面浮现的历史概要”5(132)。如果把这句话用在中日两国之间的情况上,那就是“对这一切的清楚认识,只能从共同基础上形成一个历史概要”。不仅中日两国,许多国家在历史是非问题上还存在分歧。正如这篇文章所指出的,从不同的角度看待历史可能会适得其反。因此,重要的不是我们如何看待过去的历史,而是我们今后如何走得更远,找到共同点,相互尊重;我们不应该相互指责,而应该提出这样的问题,我们可以如何为受害者作出修正,以及在这个过程中如何互相帮助。
 
 
 
正如马克·吐温所说:“书写所有历史的墨水,只不过是流动的偏见。”杜塞尔在文章中的理论也支持马克·吐温所说的。历史不是静态的和片面的。随着时间的推移,人们对历史的认识和解读也会随着社会的发展而改变,对历史的看法总是会有不同的。历史在旁观者的眼中。我们对历史观的主观性无能为力,但我们能做的是敞开自己,接受对历史的不同解释,并尊重他人的观点。
 
 
 
作品的引用
 
 
 
杜塞尔,恩里克。美国是被发现了还是被入侵了?调和200(1988):126-134。
 
 
 
打印。
 
 
 
马克,吐温。《沿着赤道:环游世界》。纽约:AMS
 
 
 
出版社,1971年。打印。

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