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摘要:给他们自由Give Them Liberty 下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --Give Them Liberty,文章讲述美帝国主义出现在19世纪90年代的最后几年。根据Eric Foner的说法,正是在这个时候,当美国在国际舞......

给他们自由 Give Them Liberty

 下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 --Give Them Liberty,文章讲述美帝国主义出现在19世纪90年代的最后几年。根据Eric Foner的说法,正是在这个时候,“当美国在国际舞台上占据帝国主义的位置时,狭义的国家地位被转移到了国外。”

American Imperialism came up in the last years of the 1890s. According to Eric Foner, it was at this time that “the narrowed definition of nationhood was projected abroad, as the United States took its place as an imperial power on the international stage.”(703)For example, America set its course to Philippines at that time. After breaking Spanish colonies in Philippines, America decided to exercise continued control in Philippines (710). The following Philippine-American War was the United States’s first prolonged war in Asia (Zwick 242).
For the great writer Mark Twain, the situation in Philippines and America’s imperial practice were “betrayal of American traditions.”( Zwick 244) His attitude was represented in his writings. In an article printed in New York Herald, he argued that “it should, it seems to me, be our pleasure and duty to make those people free, and let them deal with their own domestic questions in their own way. And so I am an anti-imperialist. ” In his view, American Imperialism exploits the colony by breaking up its independence and looting their people’s liberty, but at the same time they claims that they are expanding American power to the world and bringing freedom to the suffered . As Mark Twain complained elsewhere, “We do not intend to free the people of the Philippines...We have gone there to conquer.” (Foner 761)In his point of view, anti-imperialists should take the side of the native people and support them to govern themselves by their own instead of being governed by America.

If I was living in America in 1900, I think I would totally support Mark Twain. Because American Imperialism has cause a lot trouble for the colonies and this kind of imperialism may stimulate serious insurgency, which may in turn harm the interest of America.
Re-examing the situation of Philippines may help better understand the reason why I choose to become an anti-imperialist. Firstly, what America did at that time was to force the Filipinos to accept the value of American Empire. They claimed to help the Filipinos to appreciate “what Anglo-Saxon liberty is”(Foner 711), but what they did contradicted with the principle of Anglo-Saxon liberty. Liberalism stresses that one should not interfere other’s rights, but American deprived Filipinos of liberty in the name of liberty. Just as Mark Twain argues, America didn’t bring freedom to Philippine but exercised imperial control over this country. How ironic it is! Secondly, although America did bring modernization to Philippines including setting up modern hospitals and schools, it broke up the local social structure and distorted the social order. Foner points out that in Philippines, America tended to protect the interest of land-based local elites, which brought about greater poverty to the majority of the rural population (714). For most parts of Philippines, America didn’t bring “Anglo-Saxon liberty” but only strengthened inequality and caused turbulence. Anyone with sense of justice will fight against the imperial project and appeal to American to give liberty to the Filipinos, which means that Philippines should be ruled by Filipinos themselves.
美帝国主义出现在19世纪90年代的最后几年。根据Eric Foner的说法,正是在这个时候,“当美国在国际舞台上占据帝国主义的位置时,狭义的国家地位被转移到了国外。”(703)例如,当时美国将其航线对准了菲律宾。在打破西班牙在菲律宾的殖民地后,美国决定继续控制菲律宾(710)。接下来的菲美战争是美国在亚洲的第一次持久战(Zwick 242)。
 
对伟大的作家马克·吐温(Mark Twain)来说,菲律宾的局势和美国的帝国主义做法是“对美国传统的背叛”。(Zwick 244)他的态度体现在他的作品中。他在《纽约先驱报》(New York Herald)上发表的一篇文章中辩称,“在我看来,让这些人获得自由,让他们以自己的方式处理自己的国内问题,应该是我们的乐趣和责任。”所以我是一个反帝国主义者。在他看来,美帝国主义是通过破坏殖民地的独立和掠夺殖民地人民的自由来剥削殖民地的,但同时又声称自己在向世界扩张美国的势力,给受难者带来自由。正如马克·吐温在其他地方抱怨的那样,“我们不打算解放菲律宾人民……我们去那里征服。(Foner 761)在他看来,反帝主义者应该站在当地人民一边,支持他们自己自治,而不是被美国统治。
 
 
 
如果我生活在1900年的美国,我想我会完全支持马克·吐温。因为美帝国主义给殖民地造成了很多麻烦,这种帝国主义可能会引发严重的叛乱,从而损害美国的利益。
 
重新审视菲律宾的情况,可以更好地理解我选择成为反帝国主义者的原因。首先,美国当时所做的是迫使菲律宾人接受美帝国的价值。他们声称帮助菲律宾人欣赏“什么是盎格鲁-撒克逊自由”(Foner 711),但他们所做的与盎格鲁-撒克逊自由原则相矛盾。自由主义强调一个人不应该干涉别人的权利,但是美国人以自由的名义剥夺了菲律宾人的自由。正如马克·吐温所说,美国并没有给菲律宾带来自由,而是对这个国家实行了帝国式的控制。多么讽刺啊!其次,美国虽然给菲律宾带来了现代化,包括建立现代化的医院和学校,但它破坏了当地的社会结构,扭曲了社会秩序。Foner指出,在菲律宾,美国倾向于保护以土地为基础的当地精英的利益,这给大多数农村人口带来了更大的贫困(714)。对于菲律宾大部分地区来说,美国并没有带来“盎格鲁-撒克逊自由”,而只是加剧了不平等,引发了动荡。任何有正义感的人都会反对帝国计划,呼吁美国给菲律宾人自由,这意味着菲律宾应该由菲律宾人自己统治。
 
The situation of China would also make me an anti-imperialist. In order to seize the market and ensure its interest in East Asia, America tried to invade china in cultural way and political way. Different from the case of Philippines, America hadn’t invaded the territory of china, but America tried to eliminate the independence of the local government and sought way to impose its own will on the nation. For example, during the last years of the 19 century, America excluded and discriminated the Chinese workers in America and forced the Chinese government to make an treaty that limited the rights of overseas Chinese workers. As a result, a nationwide anti-America boycott broke out in 1905. The boycott spread over the country and involved different classes (Wang). After that, anti-America movements never ceased because of America’s interfering of local politics as well as its economic imperialism. In the 1920s, because of the economic invasion of American and mass killing of workers by the British, there was a noticeable boycott against the English and American tobacco industry. If we look back at the contemporary newspaper and magazine, we can see a lot of advertisements that called on people to support the local product and boycott the American product (Tsai).Even in today, in Chinese Internet forum, we can still notice a lot of posts that claim that Chinese people should “fight against America.” The longstanding American Empire’s economic and cultural colonization in China stimulate nationalist movements against America, which show the “structure of feelings” of the colonized on the one hand and injure the interests of America. In contrary to those pro-imperialists, I suggest America should give independence and liberty to the local government and people rather than force their own will onto the Chinese in order to pursue a just global system and protect the America’s interests.
In conclusion, I am against imperialism from the bottom of my heart. Just like Mark Twain, I hold firm belief that American imperialism is an unjust institution. In the case of Philippines and China, we can see how America was harmful for local development of the colonies and how its imperialism evoked popular protests. It’s obvious that the America imperialism should be abolished because it’s unjust and notorious. It’s a must to give liberty to the colony and rethink the system of imperialism.
Works Cited
Foner, Eric. Give me liberty!: an American history, Third Edition. New York: WW Norton, 2010. Print.
From Mark Twain, written for the New York Herald, October 15, 1900.
Tsai, Weipin. Reading Shenbao: Nationalism, Consumerism and Individuality in China 1919-37. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print.
Wang, Guanhua. In Search of Justice: The 1905-1906 Chinese Anti-American Boycott. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001. Print.
Zwick, Jim. “Mark Twain and Imperialism” A historical guide to Mark Twain .Fishkin, Shelley Fisher, ed.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 227-256.Print.
中国的情况也会使我成为一个反帝国主义者。为了抢占市场,确保在东亚的利益,美国试图通过文化和政治手段入侵中国。与菲律宾不同的是,美国并没有入侵中国领土,而是试图消除当地政府的独立,寻求将自己的意志强加于国家的方式。例如,在19世纪的最后几年,美国排斥和歧视在美国的中国工人,迫使中国政府签订条约,限制海外中国工人的权利。因此,1905年爆发了一场全国性的反美抵制运动。抵制运动蔓延全国,涉及不同阶层(王)。此后,由于美国对当地政治的干涉和经济帝国主义,反美运动从未停止。在20世纪20年代,由于美国的经济入侵和英国对工人的大规模屠杀,英国和美国的烟草业遭到了明显的抵制。如果我们回顾当代的报纸和杂志,我们可以看到很多广告呼吁人们支持本地产品和抵制美国产品(蔡氏)。即使在今天,在中国的网络论坛上,我们仍然可以看到很多帖子声称中国人应该“对抗美国”。美帝国在华长期的经济文化殖民,刺激了反美民族主义运动,一方面表现出被殖民者的“感情结构”,损害了美国的利益。与那些亲帝国主义者相反,我建议美国应该给予当地政府和人民独立和自由,而不是把自己的意志强加给中国人,以追求一个公正的全球体系,保护美国的利益。
 
总之,我从心底反对帝国主义。正如马克·吐温一样,我坚信美帝国主义是一种不公正的制度。在菲律宾和中国的例子中,我们可以看到美国是如何损害当地殖民地的发展,以及它的帝国主义是如何引起民众的抗议。美帝国主义是不公正的,是臭名昭著的,显然应该被废除。必须给予殖民地自由,重新思考帝国主义制度。
 
作品的引用
 
芳娜,埃里克。给我自由!:美国历史,第三版。纽约:WW诺顿,2010。打印。
 
摘自马克·吐温,写于1900年10月15日的《纽约先驱报》。
 
蔡,Weipin。阅读《申报:1919-37年中国的民族主义、消费主义和个性》。纽约:帕尔格雷夫麦克米伦出版社,2010年版。打印。
 
王,官话。寻找正义:1905-1906年中国的反美抵制。剑桥:哈佛大学亚洲中心,2001年。打印。
 
茨威格,吉姆。《马克·吐温与帝国主义》,马克·吐温的历史指南。菲什金,雪莱·费希尔编,纽约:牛津大学出版社,2002年。227 - 256. -打印。

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