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摘要:我们需要国际援助We Need International Aid 下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- We Need International Aid,文章讲述世界是一个不平衡的世界,尤其是在全球经济发展方面。自北方世界干涉以来,......

我们需要国际援助 We Need International Aid


    下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- We Need International Aid,文章讲述世界是一个不平衡的世界,尤其是在全球经济发展方面。自北方世界干涉以来,南方,或者我们应该说是地球南部的发展中国家,就一直在失去发展的机会。经过数百年的殖民和剥削,北方终于意识到,他们需要南方处于全球化和工业化的趋势,而南方已经从其原始状态中受到严重破坏。因此,第二次世界大战后成立的国际组织都旨在实现南北之间的平衡发展,这主要是通过国际援助的形式进行的。

      The world is an unbalanced one, especially in terms of global economic development. The South, or we should say, the developing countries in the south part of our planet, has been losing chances of development ever since the northern world interfered. After hundreds of years of colonial and exploitation, the north had finally realized that they need the south to be in the trend of globalization and industrialization, while the south has been severely damaged from its original status; thus, the international organizations formed after WWII all aim to realize the balanced development between the north and the south, which is mainly carried out in the form of international aid. However, international aid has several deeper meanings in them, it is a complex of political consideration, economic needs and culture spread; international aids made by western countries have long been criticized as a means of cultivating their own values of ideology in third world countries, whereas the under-developed people in those countries still need them desperately. So, why is international aid necessary in the international society? A brief answer will be given in this article.
 
        Before the cold war ends, US and other western countries see international aid as a method to help the “free countries” to stand against the communist influence, which was led by the Soviets. US aids were focused on two regions right after WWII—Western Europe and Asia. In Britain, France, Italy, Germany and Greece, The Marshall Plan spread to provide millions of dollars of cargos and necessities to those countries, restoring their economy and prevented communist revolution of its outbreak; in Asia, US occupied and helped the defeated Japan to resurrect and transform into the fortress of anti-communist in East Asia, supported capitalism forces in Korea and Vietnam War, and imposed embargo and sanctions on Communist China. Just as Jane M. Hoey said, “The United States is a logical choice of the free nations to assume the responsibility of moral leadership. The established reputation of Americans for idealism, generosity based chiefly on religious motivation, and their unwavering faith in democracy has qualified the United States in the past for moral world leadership.” At that time, the international aid was very focused on building ideological barricade between different countries, especially in new born African countries. For example, Angola was divided into two political powers: one backed by US and its allies, the other by Soviet Union and Cuba. Such things happened a lot in Africa and Middle East, and the merry perspective of international aid has become the main interference of the Superpowers to demonstrate their dominance in southern part of the world. Objectively reviewed, these international aids did help southern countries to restore from their original status, but these aids were mainly aimed to serve the hegemony of the super states, which can hardly be called “effective”.
 
        After the Cold War ended in 1990s, the bi-polar structure no longer existed, and ideological propaganda need fell drastically. The international organizations, particularly the United Nations, began to participate more into the international aid, especially humanitarian ones. The international aids to Africa have started to be dominated by the international organizations, such as the United Nations peacekeeping forces in Somalia, Sudan and various other African nations. The World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and many other international governmental societies all started to play a much prominent role in terms of international aids. Although main powers in the world still dominates the international political situation, United Nations has become a vital part in humanitarian reinforcement, making the aids less political and ideological, more concerned about the civilian and normal lives of the local residents in southern countries.

世界是一个不平衡的世界,特别是全球经济发展不平衡的世界。自从北方世界干预以来,南方,或者我们应该说,我们星球南部的发展中国家一直在失去发展的机会。经过几百年的殖民和剥削,北方终于意识到需要南方进入全球化和工业化的趋势,而南方已经从原来的地位被严重损害;因此,二战后成立的国际组织都是为了实现南北平衡发展,而南北平衡发展主要以国际援助的形式进行。然而,国际援助有几个更深的含义,它是一个复杂的政治考虑,经济需要和文化传播;西方国家的国际援助长期以来被批评为第三世界国家培育自身意识形态价值的手段,而第三世界国家的欠发达人民仍然迫切需要。那么,国际社会为什么需要国际援助呢?本文将给出一个简短的答案。
 
 
 
在冷战结束之前,美国和其他西方国家将国际援助视为一种帮助“自由国家”对抗苏联领导的共产主义影响的方法。美国的援助集中在二战后的两个地区——西欧和亚洲。在英国、法国、意大利、德国和希腊,马歇尔计划蔓延开来,向这些国家提供了数百万美元的货物和必需品,恢复了它们的经济,阻止了共产主义革命的爆发;在亚洲,美国占领并帮助战败的日本复兴并转变为东亚反共堡垒,在朝鲜战争和越南战争中支持资本主义力量,并对共产主义中国实施禁运和制裁。正如简·m·霍伊(Jane M. Hoey)所说,“美国是自由国家承担道德领导责任的合理选择。”美国人在理想主义、主要基于宗教动机的慷慨以及对民主的坚定信念方面的声誉,使美国过去有资格在道德世界中发挥领导作用。当时,国际援助的重点是在不同国家之间,特别是在新生的非洲国家之间建立意识形态壁垒。例如,安哥拉分裂为两个政治大国:一个由美国及其盟友支持,另一个由苏联和古巴支持。这样的事情在非洲和中东发生了很多,国际援助的美好前景已经成为超级大国展示其在世界南部地区统治地位的主要干预手段。客观地看,这些国际援助确实帮助南方国家恢复了原来的地位,但这些援助主要是为超级国家的霸权服务,很难称之为“有效”。
 
 
 
20世纪90年代冷战结束后,两极格局不复存在,意识形态宣传需求大幅下降。国际组织,特别是联合国,开始更多地参与国际援助,特别是人道主义援助。国际上对非洲的援助开始由国际组织主导,如联合国在索马里、苏丹等非洲国家的维和部队。世界卫生组织、联合国教育、科学及文化组织和许多其他国际政府组织都开始在国际艾滋病方面发挥显著的作用。虽然世界上的主要大国仍然在国际政治局势中占主导地位,但联合国已成为加强人道主义的一个重要部分,使艾滋病不那么具有政治性和意识形态,而更关心南方国家当地居民的平民和正常生活。
 
        Another change in international aids is the rise of power of abundant developing countries, such as China and India. China has risen to the second largest economy of the globe in 2013, and it has participated more into international affairs than ever. Take the Ebola outbreak in Western Africa in 2014, for example, China is one of the first countries that promised to provide 6 million dollars’ worth of food, water and other necessities for fighting against Ebola, according to World Health Organization reports in 2014. Also, Chinese troops have participated in the peacekeeping convoy in Sadin Bay, Somalia, to protect its own interest and international cargo ships from the attacks of local pirates. Unlike US and Soviet Union, China claims to “rise and resurrect” peacefully, so that it will not interfere the local affairs but only help them. The result remains to be inspected further, but it also means that international aids are becoming diversified, provided by different countries and entities of the world.
 
        To sum up, international aid was only meant to be the political strategy of the superpowers to build up their own influences, and the ideological barrier is very clear in these aids. However, as the world enters a new era, international aids are being run by various nations and organizations, making them more effective and efficient than ever, without intensifying local situation.
 
Works Cited
 
        Hoey, Jane M. "Foundations of International Aid." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 329.1 (1960): 137-143.
国际援助的另一个变化是中国和印度等发展中国家实力的崛起。2013年,中国已经成为全球第二大经济体,中国比以往任何时候都更多地参与国际事务。以2014年西非爆发的埃博拉疫情为例,根据世界卫生组织2014年的报告,中国是首批承诺提供价值600万美元的食物、水和其他必需品抗击埃博拉的国家之一。此外,中国军队还参加了在索马里萨丁湾的维和护航行动,以保护本国利益和国际货船不受当地海盗袭击。与美国和苏联不同,中国声称以和平方式“崛起和复兴”,因此它不会干涉当地事务,而只是帮助他们。其结果有待进一步检查,但它也意味着国际艾滋病正变得多样化,由世界上不同的国家和实体提供。
 
 
 
综上所述,国际援助只是超级大国为了增强自身影响力而采取的政治策略,在这些援助中意识形态障碍非常明显。然而,随着世界进入一个新时代,国际艾滋病正由各个国家和组织管理,使它们比以往任何时候都更有效力和效率,而没有加剧当地局势。
 
 
 
作品的引用
 
 
 
霍利,简。"国际援助基金会"《美国政治和社会科学院年鉴》329.1(1960):137-143。

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