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摘要:真理的存在Existence of truth 下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 essay代写范文 -- Existence of truth,文章讲述 柏拉图相信真实真理的存在,但是他描述了洞穴的寓言,以表明我们从感官中获得的许多 真相不......

真理的存在 Existence of truth

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Existence of truth,文章讲述柏拉图相信真实真理的存在,但是他描述了洞穴的寓言,以表明我们从感官中获得的许多“真相”不一定是真实真理。我们认为我们知道的真理可能只是真实真理的阴影。他描述的图像是所有人都是在山洞里的囚犯。他们都面对着洞穴的背面,看着后墙上的图像。在寓言中,柏拉图将未经表述的人比喻成囚禁在山洞中,无法转头的囚犯。他们所能看到的只是洞穴的墙。在他们后面燃烧着火。在大火和囚犯之间有一个栏杆,木偶可以沿着栏杆行走。

Plato believes the existence of truth and thinks that the final value of philosophy is perfectionism. Moreover he realizes that the general run of humankind can think, and speak, etc., without any awareness of his realm of forms. The allegory of the cave is supposed to explain this.

 
柏拉图相信真理的存在,认为哲学的最终价值是完美主义。此外,他还意识到,一般人类可以思考、说话等等,而不知道他的形式王国。洞穴的寓言可以解释这一点。

Plato believes in the existence of real truth, but he describes an allegory of the Cave to show that a lot of "truth" we gain from sense are not necessarily the real truth. The truth that we think we know could be only a shadow of the real truth. He describes an image that all people are prisoners who are in a cave. They all face the back side of the cave, watching the images on the back wall. In the allegory, Plato likens people untutored in the Theory of Forms to prisoners chained in a cave, unable to turn their heads. All they can see is the wall of the cave. Behind them burns a fire. Between the fire and the prisoners there is a parapet, along which puppeteers can walk. The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. The prisoners are unable to see these puppets, the real objects, which pass behind them. What the prisoners see and hear are shadows and echoes cast by objects that they do not see. Such prisoners would mistake appearance for reality. They would think the things they see on the wall (the shadows) were real; they would know nothing of the real causes of the shadows. So when the prisoners talk, what are they talking about? If an object (a book, let us say) is carried past behind them, and it casts a shadow on the wall, and a prisoner says “I see a book,” what is he talking about? He thinks he is talking about a book, but he is really talking about a shadow. But he uses the word “book.” What does that refer to? Plato gives his answer and his point is that the prisoners would be mistaken. For they would be taking the terms in their language to refer to the shadows that pass before their eyes, rather than (as is correct, in Plato’s view) to the real things that cast the shadows. If a prisoner says “That’s a book” he thinks that the word “book” refers to the very thing he is looking at. But he would be wrong. He’s only looking at a shadow. The real referent of the word “book” he cannot see. To see it, he would have to turn his head around. Plato’s point: the general terms of our language are not “names” of the physical objects that we can see. They are actually names of things that we cannot see, things that we can only grasp with the mind. When the prisoners are released, they can turn their heads and see the real objects. Then they realize their error. What can we do that is analogous to turning our heads and seeing the causes of the shadows? We can come to grasp the forms with our minds.
 
柏拉图相信真实的存在,但他描述了一个洞穴的寓言,以表明我们从感官获得的许多“真理”不一定是真正的真理。我们认为自己知道的真相可能只是真实真相的一个影子。他描述了这样一种形象:所有的人都是在洞穴里的囚犯。他们都面向洞穴的背面,看着后面墙上的图像。在这个寓言中,柏拉图把没有接受形式理论教育的人比作被锁在洞穴里的囚徒,无法转头。他们所能看到的只有岩壁。他们身后燃烧着一堆火。在火和囚犯之间有一堵矮墙,木偶戏表演者可以沿着矮墙走。在囚犯身后的木偶戏表演者,举起木偶,在洞穴的墙上投下阴影。囚犯们无法看到这些木偶,那些在他们身后经过的真实物体。囚犯们所看到和听到的都是他们看不见的物体所投下的阴影和回声。这样的囚犯会把外表误认为现实。他们会认为他们在墙上看到的东西(影子)是真的;他们将不知道造成阴影的真正原因。所以当犯人说话的时候,他们在说什么?如果一个物体(比如说一本书)被带过去,它在墙上投下了一个影子,一个囚犯说“我看见一本书”,他在说什么?他以为他在说一本书,但实际上他在说一个影子。但他使用了“书”这个词。“这是什么意思?”柏拉图给出了他的答案,他的观点是囚犯是错的。因为在他们的语言里,这些术语是指在他们眼前经过的阴影,而不是(按照柏拉图的观点,这是正确的)投下阴影的真实事物。如果一个囚犯说“那是一本书”,他认为“书”这个词指的就是他正在看的东西。但他错了。他只是在看一个影子。他看不见“书”这个词的真正所指。要看到它,他得把头转过去。柏拉图的观点:我们语言的一般术语不是我们能看到的物理对象的“名称”。它们实际上是我们看不见的事物的名称,是我们只能用心灵来理解的事物。当囚犯被释放时,他们可以转头看到真实的物体。然后他们意识到自己的错误。我们能做什么类似于转动我们的头看到阴影的原因?我们可以用我们的思想来掌握这些型相。

Plato’s aim in the essay is to describe what is necessary for us to achieve this reflective understanding. But even without it, it remains true that our very ability to think and to speak depends on the Forms. For the terms of the language we use get their meaning by “naming” the Forms that the objects we perceive participate in. The prisoners may learn what a book is by their experience with shadows of books. But they would be mistaken if they thought that the word “book” refers to something that any of them has ever seen.

Likewise, we may acquire concepts by our perceptual experience of physical objects. But we would be mistaken if we thought that the concepts that we grasp were on the same level as the things we perceive. So just like what Plato said, the true object of knowledge of the philosophy. The things which we perceive as real are actually just shadows in the cave. Just as the freed prisoner ascends into the light of the sun, we accumulate knowledge and ascend into the realm of the truth and the reality.

柏拉图在这篇文章中的目的是描述我们需要什么来实现这种反思的理解。但即使没有它,我们思考和说话的能力也依赖于形式,这一点仍然是正确的。因为我们使用的语言术语通过“命名”我们感知的对象所参与的形式来获得它们的意义。囚犯通过亲身体验书本的影子,就能知道书本是什么。但是,如果他们认为“书”这个词指的是他们任何一个人见过的东西,那他们就错了。
 
同样,我们也可以通过对物理对象的知觉经验来获得概念。但如果我们认为我们所掌握的概念与我们所感知的事物在同一层次上,那我们就错了。就像柏拉图说的,哲学知识的真正对象。我们认为真实的东西,其实只是洞穴里的影子。就像被释放的囚犯提升到阳光下一样,我们积累知识并提升到真理和实相的领域。

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