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摘要:本文是一篇英语论文,本研究从物理世界、社交世界和精神世界三个方面对这些语境关联成分予以分析。物理世界包括时间、空间和非语言因素;社交世界涉及价值观、社会关系、交际规则。......

本文是一篇英语论文,本研究从物理世界、社交世界和精神世界三个方面对这些语境关联成分予以分析。物理世界包括时间、空间和非语言因素;社交世界涉及价值观、社会关系、交际规则。

本文是一篇英语论文,本论文对美剧《绝望主妇》中的冲突性话语进行研究,目的在于通过具体分析冲突性话语,加强对人际交往中冲突性话语的识别和理解,从而有效应对冲突性话语,并实现冲突性话语对人际关系的和谐建构。本论文尝试回答以下几个问题:引发冲突性话语产生的原因是什么?交际者针对冲突话语采取的建设性策略有哪些?通过对以上问题的探讨,进一步了解冲突性话语的生成机制和转化机制。

Chapter One Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study
As a common phenomenon in daily life, conflict talks occur frequently inpeople’s interactive communication. Conflict talks tend to occur when interlocutorshold different opinions, beliefs, goals and purposes. Conflict talks are themanifestation of opposition and argument caused by disagreement between speakersand hearers (Leung, 2002; Zhu, 2008). Cooperative endeavor is manifested in thedynamic process of conflict talks (Leung, 2002). Incompatibility and opposing arecommon and typical features of conflict talks (Barki & Hartwick, 2004).
Conflict talks have both constructive and destructive influences. The two partieswill reach a desirable result if conflict talks are dealt with appropriately, and they playpositive roles in the relationship. Conflict talks are constructive in this sense and arerecognized as a positive process with great significance. Otherwise conflict talks aredestructive and have negative impacts on communication. Constructive conflict talksexert positive influences on interpersonal relationships, which are beneficial toparticipants’ mutual understanding. This is one of the important reasons that conflicttalks are analyzed in this thesis.
Recently, a large number of studies have been conducted on conflict talks, whichinvolve philosophy, rhetoric, anthropology, psychology, sociology and linguistics.However, domestic studies on conflict talks are far behind studies of conflict talksabroad in light of Linguistic Adaptation Theory. The strategies for constructivemanagement of conflict talks have not been studied systematically up to now. Besides,the triggering factors for the occurrence of conflict talks are not explainedcomprehensively. Based on Jef Verschueren’s Linguistic Adaptation Theory, thisthesis explores the triggering factors for the occurrence of conflict talks. Thetriggering factors by which conflict talks can be initiated, maintained or escalated, andterminated are discussed. Verschueren (2000) argues that when interlocutors fail to adapt their linguistic choices to particular contextual correlates, conflict talks arelikely to occur. The triggering factors are attributed to three worlds includinginterlocutors’ physical, social and mental worlds. Physical world refers to temporalreference, spatial reference and non-verbal factors. Social world means values, socialrelationships, communicative norms and other social factors. Mental world isinterpreted as one’s personality traits, motivations, wishes, emotions and cognitiveelements. Moreover, strategies for the constructive management of conflict talks arerevealed in this thesis. Interlocutors should take these contextual correlates andconstructive tactics into consideration. Only in this way, can conflict talks to someextent be avoided or mitigated in communication.
..........................

1.2 Significance of the Study
The study mainly focuses on the triggering factors by which conflict talks areinitiated, maintained or escalated, and terminated. Moreover, strategies for theconstructive management of conflict talks are also explored in this thesis. This studyhas both academic and practical significance.
Firstly, the study could enrich linguistic researches by analyzing and explainingconflict talks.
Secondly, the study could make the utmost of Linguistic Adaptation Theory andapply it to the analysis of conflict talks, which indicates that linguistic adaptationtheory has a strong explanatory power. Meanwhile, the study of conflict talks canexamine and broaden the application of adaptation theory.
Thirdly, the practical significance of this study lies in that the exploration ofreasons for the occurrence of conflict talks might help people identify and understandconflict talks effectively, dealing with them appropriately. Thus, we can avoid theoccurrence of conflict talks to some extent and maintain healthy relationships.
Fourthly, the investigation of different strategies for constructive management ofconflict talks is helpful in minimizing the dysfunctions of conflict talks and buildingharmonious interpersonal relationships in society.
........................

Chapter Two Literature Review

2.1 Definition of Conflict talks
As the definition of conflict talks is of great importance, it is necessary to presentthese definitions of conflict talks. Various studies on conflict talks shed light on thedefinition of conflict talks. This thesis makes a brief summary of how conflict talkshave been defined. The terms used are abundant, indicating the scope and differentconcepts of conflict talks, for example, disagreement (Pomerantz, 1984), theadversative episode (Eisenberg & Garvey, 1981), the contracting routine (Boggs,1978), oppositional argument (Schiffrin, 1985), quarrel (Antaki, 1994), disputes anddisputing (Brenneis, 1988; Kotthoff, 1993), and conflict talks (Grimshaw, 1990).
Eisenberg & Garvey (1981) hold that conflict talks are certain speech acts thatinvolve objection, rejection, criticism and interrogation resulted from seekingopposition in attitudes or emotions.
According to Grimshaw (1990), conflict talks are conversational discourses,including argument, dispute, quarrels, squabbles, etc.
From Nelson’s (2001) perspective, conflict talks are defined as some kind ofverbal communication in which different opinions are exchanged betweenparticipants.
Honda (2002) argues that we could understand conflict talks from different levels:on the one hand, conflict talks are interpreted as a verbal activity in which two partiesmanage to maintain their own positions by opposition. On the other hand, conflicttalks could be viewed as a process of rejection that involves not only themanifestation of rejection, but the whole process of opposition in communication (Jia,2007).
.........................

2.2 The Classification of Conflict Talks
Conflict talks can be classified into different types, which may imply differentfeatures and functions. According to Grimshaw (1990: 283), there were four kinds ofconflict talks based on the content.
1) “Things or rights”2) “Beliefs”3) “Factual claims”4) “Some combinations of the above”
Zhao Yingling (2004) found that conflict talks could be divided into twocategories: non-aggressive and aggressive conflict talks. As for non-aggressiveconflict talks, interlocutors only focus on attacking the interpreters’ ideas, whichcouldn’t bring about emotional or personal conflicts. Aggressive conflict talksinvolving verbal attacks and even unreasonable behaviors often lead to psychologicaland spiritual sufferings. As aggressive conflict talks usually stir up indignant emotions and irrational behaviors, they may exert negative influences on communication. Bycontrast, non-aggressive conflict talks have positive influences on communication,which can help recognize the problem, keep self-esteem and promote interpersonalrelationships.
The conflict talks collected from Desperate Housewives are almost aggressiveconflict talks. Taking the negative effects into consideration, it is necessary to conductthe present study in order to minimize dysfunctions of conflict talks.
..........................
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework.........................................12
3.1 Language Use as a Process of Making Linguistic Choices............................12
3.2 Three Properties of Languages Use................................ 13
3.3 Four Angles of Adaptation........................ 13
Chapter Four An Analysis of Conflict Talks in Desperate Housewives WithLinguistic Adaptation Theory...................................... 16
4.1 The Causes of Conflict Talks................................... 16
4.1.1 Failure to Adapt to the Physical World........................... 16
4.1.2 Failure to Adapt to the Social World.................................23
Chapter Five Conclusion...................................... 56
5.1 Major Findings.................................56
5.2 Implications..............................57

Chapter Four An Analysis of Conflict Talks in Desperate HousewivesWith Linguistic Adaptation Theory

4.1 The Causes of Conflict Talks
Compared with conflict talks in daily life, collecting conflict talks occurred incertain TV series is more feasible. It is very common for us to find conflict talks inDesperate Housewives and a detailed exploration of conflict talks in American TVseries Desperate Housewives is necessary. According to linguistic adaptation theory,the components of the communicative context include physical surroundings andinterpersonal relationships as well as participants’ mental state (Verschueren, 2000:66). As has been noted in the previous chapter, the use of conflict talks is a process ofcontinuous making linguistic choices and choices are made at different structurallevels including phonetic, phonological, morphological, syntactic, lexical andsemantic levels. Interlocutors are supposed to adapt linguistic choices tocorresponding aspects of physical world, social world and mental world for fear of theoccurrence of conflict talks.
4.1.1 Failure to Adapt to the Physical World
Physical world refers to the present environment in which verbalcommunication occurs. Physical world includes temporal references, spatial referenceand nonverbal factors. Undoubtedly, temporal reference and spatial reference areimportant ingredients of physical world. Nonverbal factors refer to posture, eyecontact, voice and tone, facial expression and even silence that can exert an influenceon communication. As a result, the failure to adapt to these factors may easily giverise to conflict talks.
............................

Chapter Five Conclusion

5.1 Major Findings

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