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Culture affects every part of a business from initial communication to building team synergy. To conduct business in a foreign country, one must understand the traditions and values of the society, along with consumer needs. Estimates show that more than half of all international joint ventures fail within 2-3 years because of the lack of cultural competency. Certain issues need to be addressed for a business to ascertain what is culturally correct in a country. Resolution of these issues comes through direct experience with the culture to determine the needs and desires of the population, then addressing these in culturally appropriate ways. Behavioral assessments and adjustments need to be made constantly by employees to effectively penetrate a market and culture to be successful. In today's business world this is now essential for building and maintaining a competitive global advantage.
Providing a cross-cultural training experience is an investment that will reward a company in the long run. Companies that institute these types of programs have a competitive advantage over those that do not, as training reduces culture shock, affectively alleviates inappropriate situations, and ultimately creates lasting relationships with international partners. Culturally savvy employees are more effective leaders as they can better relate to situations outside their realm of comfort, with ease, and continue to build on them for the future.
China and India's current business relations; future endeavors
When looking at China and India and their current relationship, one must consider, first and foremost, their size. China has recently over taken Japan as the world's second largest economy, with India's own recovering economic status coming in close behind. For centuries they have shared advanced ideas, inventions and philosophical traditions. They have reemerged as leading techno-economic nations, and recent developments and exchanges between them indicate that the ball is already rolling in the direction of globalization for common good. No two nations are better equipped than India and China to show the world how the common concerns of humanity can be addressed through mutual respect, friendship, healthy competition, and sharing of resources. Both Democratic India and Communist China have embarked upon ambitious science, technology, and economic development programs through centralized planning. Both emphasize self-reliance through local initiatives, restricting the flow of foreign capital and technology.
Prospects for India and China
Prospectively speaking, India and China are facing an energy crisis that needs to be addressed today. India must create 15 million new jobs a year to keep the younger population employed. China has 17% of the world's population and only .8% of the oil reserves, with an economy growing at a rate of 8-10% every year. China and India alike are actively seeking imports to meet their energy needs. China recently invested in oil interest in Russia and the Middle East. China and India continue to compete with each other for oil resources, however an opportunity can be created here where they can cooperate. Discussions have been taking place between CNOOC, The Chinese Oil Conglomerate, and India's Oil and Natural Gas Commission. Discussions include developing a committee of oil producing nations to determine the supply and price of crude oil, for the benefit of importers in rapidly developing countries, and exploring acquisitions strategies to meet these needs.
China and India have allocated a large amount of capital to research and development, consequently they are producing more innovations than any other countries in the world after signing the Indo-China Inter-governmental Science and Technology Agreement. These two countries are highly trained in the fields of science and technology which make them a diverse resource to outside countries wanting to utilize those talents. Specific joint projects are proposed at inter-agency levels in such diverse fields as meteorology, ocean science and technology, space science and technology, and biotechnology. These two countries graduate millions of students each year that are inundated with the knowledge to produce and actively participate in the global production of goods and public services. With these numbers, manufacturing may be at stake in the western world, by combining these efforts they are causing a power shift from manufacturing countries.
Insights into China
China is the world's fourth largest country (9.6 M sq km) in area after Russia, Canada, and the US. China is located in Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea. China is surrounded by fourteen neighboring countries namely: Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Vietnam.
China's terrain consists mostly of mountains, high plateaus, and deserts in the west, and plains, deltas, and hills in east. China has extremely diverse weather, from tropical in the south to subarctic in north. The lowest point of China is Turpan Pendi, 154 m below sea level, and the highest point is Mount Everest at 8,850 m. Total area of China is 9,596,961 sq km, land area being 9,569,901 sq km and water area being 27,060 sq km. The land consists of 14.86% arable and 1.27% permanent crops. 83.87% of land is used for other purposes. 545,960 sq km consists of irrigated land. The natural resources of China include aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, and magnetite. China has the world's largest hydropower potential. The natural hazards include frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts), tsunamis, damaging floods, droughts, earthquakes, and land subsidence.
People and History
On 1 October 1949 People's Republic of China was established. The most recent promulgation of the constitution was done on 4 December 1982 with amendments in 1988, 1993, 2004. The flag of China is red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars in the upper hoist-side corner. The color red represents revolution, while the stars symbolize the four social classes: the working class, the peasantry, the urban petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie, united under the Communist Party of China. Beijing is the capital of China. Major cities include Shanghai, Tianjin, Shenyang, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chongqing, Harbin, and Chengdu. China has five official religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism. The ethnic groups include the Han Chinese at 91.5%; the Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uighur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities comprise the remaining 8.5%. The languages spoken in China include Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect, official), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and minority languages.
China is the world's most populous country with 1,330,141,295 people (July 2010 est.). The birth rate is 12.17-births per 1,000 of the population, and the death rate is 6.89 deaths per 1,000 of the population with the population growth rate being 0.494%. The male to female ratio being 1.06. The life expectancy for males is 72.54 years and females is 76.77 years. The median age is 34.1 years, with 33.5 years for males and 34.7 years for females. The literacy rate is 90.9%, 95.1% for males and 86.5% for females. As of 2000, percentage of population age 15 and over having no or incomplete primary schooling is 15.6%. Those that have completed primary is 35.7%, some secondary is 34.0%, complete secondary is 11.1%, some postsecondary through advanced degree is only 3.6%.
China has a vast and varied school system to provide for its population. There are preschools, kindergartens, schools for the deaf and blind, key schools (similar to college preparatory schools), primary schools, secondary schools of diverse disciplines, and various institutions of higher learning. China's basic education involves pre-school, a nine-year compulsory education from elementary to junior high school, and the standard senior high school education. It also has special education for disabled children, and education for illiterate people. The Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education, which took effect July 1, 1986, established requirements and deadlines for attaining a universal education system, tailored to local conditions, and guaranteed school-age children the right to receive an education. China has over 200 million elementary and high school students, who, together with pre-school children, account for one sixth of the total population. The Central Government has prioritized basic education as a key field of infrastructure construction and educational development.
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