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时间:2021-09-11 13:39 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本文是澳洲assignment代写范文,主要内容是探讨当前环境危机产生的原因,以及对此现状所提出的减少危机影响的相关......

工业革命开创了人类历史的新局面。科学研究促进了新技术的发展,反过来,被有效地利用,通过狂热的企业家大规模生产的商品和服务上丰富人们的生活。尽管在许多故障在发展经济的过程中,普通人的生活标准,至少一个不居住在一个专制的国家,现在似乎已经达到前所未有的高水平。

然而,先进的技术和大规模的应用,如果管理不当,往往会造成自然环境的强烈的、不可撤销的损害。到了工业革命的新技术是由化石燃料的大量消耗,特别是煤和石油。化石燃料燃烧过剩会扰乱大气平衡,将加热地球表面的温度。全球环境恶化的影响,发展中国家由于经济与农业有关的部门是最敏感的由于全球变暖的气候和生态条件的变化感到最痛苦。全球变暖也导致水平线上升,随着全球温度的不断增加,冰从南极洲和北冰洋开始融化,海水会上升,通过这件事,一些小的岛屿将被淹没的时候了。

 

The industrial revolution ushered in a new phase in the history of mankind. Scientific inquiries have stimulated the development of new technologies, which in turn, have been utilized effectively by avid entrepreneurs for larger scale production of goods and service ostensibly to enrich the lives of people (Rao 2000). In spite of many breakdowns in the process of economic development, the living standard of the average person, at least one not residing in a despotic country, seems now to have reached an unprecedentedly high level (Rao 2000).

 

However, advanced technologies and their large scale applications, if not properly managed, tend to inflict intense and irrevocable damage to natural environments (Gaan 2008). The new technologies brought in by the industrial revolution are characterized by the massive consumption of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil (Gaan 2008). An excess burning of fossil fuels will disturb the atmospheric equilibrium and will heat up earth’s surface. The impact of global environmental degradation is most painfully felt by developing nations because agriculture and related sectors of the economy are the most sensitive to changes in climatic and ecological conditions due to global warming (Gaan 2008). Global warming also cause the horizontal line to go up, with the global temperature keep increasing, the ice from Antarctica and the arctic ocean will begin to melt, seawater is going to rise, follow by this matter, some of the small island will be inundated when times up (Gaan 2008).

 

Carbon tax policy and emissions trading system policy are two major policies to reduce the effect of environmental crisis.

 

Carbon taxes are one of several incentive-based instruments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. They can be imposed on either the production or consumption of fossil fuels, in proportion to carbon content, and result in increases in their effective prices (Sanderson and Isiam 2007). Fuel users respond by substituting away from heavily taxed fossil energy sources to those with lower taxes, as well as to non-fossil energy sources (Sanderson and Isiam 2007). On a broader level, other aggregate inputs such as capital, labour and materials are substituted for energy. More indirectly, there is a shift away from fossil fuel intensive inputs and final goods and services. In the longer-run, carbon taxes may stimulate the development and adoption of technologies that reduce fossil fuel usage in capital goods and consumer goods (Sanderson and Isiam 2007). Most economic analyses of carbon taxes to date have been performed at the national or multi-country level.

 

However, there is danger in preceding with analyses this broad. Both economic and environmental impacts of carbon taxes are likely to vary significantly by region, and national or multi-country averages belie the extremes at the regional level both positive and negative (Rainish, Adam and David 1999). A full understanding of the impacts of carbon taxes thus requires that the national and multi-country models be supplemented with regional-level models (Rainish, Adam and David 1999). Any public policies to cushion or adjust the burden from carbon taxes can be much more effectively targeted if it is known which sectors in which regions are likely to be the most adversely affected.

 

A carbon tax can be implemented in the form of an ad valorem tax on the production or consumption of fossil fuels, with the tax rate typically based on the carbon content of fossil fuels (Rainish, Adam and David 1999). Impacts across countries are expected to different significantly between these two alternatives. A national production tax collected by the countries producing fossil fuels would be more beneficial to them than a consumption tax collected by importing countries (Rainish, Adam and David 1999). This is because the prices, net of a consumption tax, that exporting countries world receives would be much lower than if the tax were collected by exporting countries (Rainish, Adam and David 1999). Furthermore, Impacts would also differ depending on the ownership of those resources in the exporting country. If the resource is owned by foreign companies, a producer tax will continue to provide revenues to the government, with the foreign companies bearing a major share of the loss in revenue due the decrease in prices (Rainish, Adam and David 1999).

 

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