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时间:2021-09-11 17:00 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本文是留学生Economics Assignment范文,主要内容是讲述小额 信贷对农业能力的影响,以及农民对信用影响的认知等问题......

Economics Assignment范文:Ogun State Agricultural And Multipurpose Credit Agency 

 

小额信贷在解决农民生产问题,实现小规模的发展,在其规定政府机构和其他正式机构的参与正在增加。农业发展是一个过程,涉及到采用改进的技术,新的和更好的做法,农民尤其是小规模的农民,但这一切做法必须购买和财务结果的获得只有少数农民有资金的财务资源。最常见的农业融资形式包括政府部门分配在年度国家预算,信贷计划,直接价格补贴的投入,并通过赠款。

 

The realization of microcredit as a panacea in addressing production problems among small scale farmers has necessitated the increased involvement of government agencies and other formal institutions in its provision.

 

This study was carried out in Egba zone of Ogun state to assess the effects of the micro-credit of Ogun state agricultural and multipurpose credit agency (OSAMCA) on cassava farmers that are beneficiaries. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select a total of 90 respondents from the sample frame of the targeted population study.

 

Data were collected by using an interview guide. The data collected were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, chi-square, t-test and correlation.

 

The result showed that 77% of the respondents were male. Also, majority(61%) of the respondents were in the age range of 41-50 years and have 63% having one form of education or the other. Also, 79% practice traditional farming system while 52% have benefited more than once. Although only few(26%) had formal farm training while 72% belong to faming groups.

 

The correlation result showed that there exist a significant relationship between the farming experience and the effect recorded(r=0.31, p< 0.05) also the chi-square analysis for farming system(χ2 = 11.28) show a significant relationship between it and the effect of the credit on their farming activities at 0.05 significant level. The t-test value showed a significant difference in the farm capacity before and after the credit procurement.

 

The study therefore recommended that proper measure be put in place to sustain the positive effect observed and also more extension package should be put in place for the beneficiaries.

 

Keywords; Microcredit, farming activities, cassava farmers.

 

Introduction

In Africa, cassava is gradually being transformed from a famine-reserve commodity and rural food staple to a cash crop for urban consumption. (Sanni et al: 2004)

 

Nigeria is the world's largest cassava producer; a third more than production in Brazil and almost double the production of Indonesia and Thailand. Cassava is a very versatile commodity with numerous uses and by products. Each component of the plant can be valuable to its cultivator. The leaves may be consumed as a vegetable, or cooked as a soup ingredient or dried and fed to livestock as a protein feed supplement. The stem is used for plant propagation and grafting. The roots are typically processed for human and industrial consumption. (Sanni et al: 2004).

 

In Nigeria, the consumption pattern varies according to ecological zones. Garri, a roasted granule is the dominant product and is widely accepted in both rural and urban areas.

 

Cassava (Manihot esculentum) belongs to root and tuber crop family. It has underground roots which can be consumed by man and livestock after processing. It has other advantages like it can grow in relatively poor soil and low rainfall area. The roots is relatively high in carbohydrate which form the staple food of the west Africa after rice and maize as it can be processed into different forms which include fufu, starch, garri, cassava flour and others. Cassava is of two major types i.e. sweet cassava(Manihot palmita) and bitter cassava(M.ultilisomona). Varieties of cassava include TME3399,TME419,Texaco,Odongbo,Idileru e.t.c (Iwena: 2002).

 

Agricultural development is a process that involve adoption of improved technologies, new and better practices by farmers especially small scale farmers but all this practices have to be purchased and finance for their result to be obtained but only few farmers have the financial resources to finance it. The most common form of agricultural financing include Government sectoral allocation in the annual national budget, credit programmes, direct price subsidy of input and through grants.

 

Agricultural credit is an essential input along with modern technology for higher productivity. credit is not only obtained by the small scale and marginal farmers for survival but also by large scale farmers for enhancing their productivity and income.

 

Credit is an important factor in the strategy for agricultural development. It is in recognition of this that government put in place credit policies and established institutions and schemes that would facilitate the flow of credit to farmers. According to Badiru (2010) Credit institutions can be categorized into three groups;

 

a. formal institutions such as commercial banks, Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank(NACRDB) and state owned credit agencies like OSAMCA.

 

b. semi-formal institutions such as NGOs, MFI and cooperative societies.

 

c. informal institutions such as money lenders, relatives, rotating saving and credit societies(esusu) etc. It has been noted that access to any of the category has a role in the outcome of the credit usage.

 

The government at different tiers had initiated also different programmes and scheme to provide credit. In Ogun state, the state government established OSAMCA in 2003 to provide credit for farmers in order to enhance their productivity and welfare. It is in this view that the agency initiated its microcredit scheme in 2004 for farmers at 12% interest rate with the utmost aim that it would translate into increased and improved productivity. The micro credit scheme targets individual farmers, cooperative societies and others with crop farmers being a major beneficiaries since inception.(OSAMCA Bulletin, 2006).

 

However, since the availability of credit does not literally translate into improved livelihood and is only a necessary but not a sufficient condition for poverty reduction there is a need to understand the effect of this credit on the farming activities of participating cassava farmers in the zone. It is against this background that the study objectives were to;

 

Describe the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers.

 

Determine the amount of credit procured from OSAMCA.

 

Determine the effect of the credit in terms of the farm capacity on farming activities.

 

Describe the perception of the farmers on the effect of the credit on their farming activities.

 

Determine the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers and the effect of the credit on their farming activities.

 

Determine if there exist any significant difference between the farm capacity before and after the credit procurement.

 

Methodology 方法论

The study was carried out in the Egba geopolitical zone of Ogun state between January and February 2011. The state is one of the states in the southwestern part of Nigeria and the state has four geopolitical zones including Egba, Yewa, Ijebu and Remo zones. The zone comprises of six Local Government Areas namely Abeokuta south, Abeokuta north, Ewekoro, Ifo, Obafemi owode and Odeda Local Government Areas.

 

The zone has an evergreen vegetation with trees and this favour the cultivation of many food crops. It has two distinct seasons with about 7-8 months of rainfall occurring between April and October. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 90 beneficiaries in the study area out of a list of 486 farmers. Interview guide was designed to collect information from the farmers on their socio economic characteristics and their cassava farming activities.

 

Independent variables measured include age, marital status, level of education, household size, other occupation, farming experience and farming system. Others include the amount of credit and the farm capacity. The dependent variable which is the effect and their perception of the effect on their farming activities which was measured on a 5 point scale of Strongly agree= 5, Agree= 4, Undecided= 3, Disagree= 2 and 1= Strongly disagree. The expected maximum score was 70 while the minimum score was 14. This was later categorised as 14-33 as low effect, 34-53 as average effect and 54-70 as High effect.

 

Frequency distribution, mean and percentages were used to depict some of the socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers in the study area. Chi-square and correlation were used to determine the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and the effect, while t-test was used to determine if any significant difference exist between the farm capacity before and after the credit procurement.

 

Results and discussion.结果与讨论。

Socioeconomic characteristics 社会经济特征  

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