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时间:2021-09-12 19:10 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本文是留学生assignment范文,主要内容是针对健康保险市场在自由竞争情况下,如何逆向选择,并且针对该市场的道德......

健康保险市场中的逆向选择与道德风险

Adverse selection and moral hazard in the health insurance market

 

在自由竞争的情况下,大多数商品在市场上可以有效地分配资源。然而,这种在医疗市场的竞争机制,可能会导致伦理问题和效率低下。通过我们的研究,市场失灵可以归因于以下原因。

当某个经济体的福利(效用或利润)被另一个经济体的作用所影响时,外部性是存在的。在一定的卫生保健中,人们可以从其他人的消费中受益,这会导致医疗保健的社会边际效益高于个人。随后,减产问题就会出现。

保健是显着不同于普通商品,如食品和衣服,因为我们不知道我们需要什么,我们需要多少钱。随着对不确定性的反应,市场倾向于发展保险,这使人们更好地通过减少不确定性。

 

In the circumstance of free competition, the resources can be allocated efficiently in the market for most commodities. However, such competition mechanism in health care market can lead to ethic issues and inefficiency. Through our research, market failure can be attributed to the following reasons.

 

Externalities is present whenever some economic agent's welfare (utility or profit) is 'directly' affected by the action of another agent in the economy (176,H,D). In certain health care, people can benefit from others' consumption, which will result that the social marginal benefit of health care is higher than the individual. Subsequently, the problem of underproduction will arise.

 

Adverse selection and moral hazard in the health insurance market

Health care is significantly different from common commodities such as food and clothes, since we don't know when we need and how much we need pay. With response to the uncertainties, the market tends to develop insurance, which makes people better off via reducing the uncertainties.

 

Problems specifically adverse selection and moral hazard inevitably exit in the market. Adverse selection is caused by the asymmetric information between the insurance company and the consumers, inducing high insurance fees. Nonetheless, people in low risk will be driven out of the market.

 

Another problem is the moral hazard. When people have insurance, they tend to be less careful about their health status increasing their demands of health care service.

 

The patients with insurance will demand more health care resources than they actually need, which will cause a welfare loss.

 

Assume that marginal cost is constant. The amount of health care that should be provided is Q1, where marginal cost equal to marginal benefit. However, because of the excess demand of patients, Q2 will be provided. And the shaded area represents welfare loss.

 

The information asymmetry between patient and doctor: agent problem

In health care market, the relationship between the doctor and patient is much different from the normal buyers and sellers. The patient is there to give the doctor all the information t doctor needs in order that the doctor can make a decision, and the patient should then implement that decision once the doctor has made it (CD, 45 Williams). As a result, patients' consumption largely depends on the doctor. Therefore doctors have an incentive to make patient consume more in order to make more profit. Hence overproduction occurs.

 

Monopoly

With respect to two reasons, the certain hospitals in some areas can easily achieve local monopoly. Firstly, People in one community may have only one choice of the hospital or doctor for others far away from their living areas. Secondly it is the natural monopoly. Because of the contradictory between the high fixed cost and the confined demands, only one hospital can make profit.

 

Part 2: Perception from the U.K. market

For the health care, the resource cannot be allocated efficiently in the free market. Government interventions play an essential role in providing the health care. In order to cope with such flaws, the UK government established NHS providing the civil with the health care.

 

Monopoly power of hospital: Before making the purchasing decisions, buyers always want to compare between goods and service provider with different calibrations. Since free market will induce the complicated management, which had little relationship with the opportunity cost, government will pull the free-market price, with the mandatory power, to the more preferable price where price equals average cost, at which point, the pricing behaviour finally strikes to more consumer surplus.

 

If the health service market is in the state of monopoly, where there is only one provider in the whole facet, in order to realize maximization of the profit, the monopolist will choose the point M() to produce the product in the market, in which consumer surplus is . However, since the NHS is such product that has the properties of public goods, the government itself would ensure that the NHS covers all the groups in need. In consequence, government intervention would drag the production point from M() to C(), where the consumer surplus becomes larger than the previous one, by doing so more public groups will enjoy the benefits of the National Health Service.

 

本文标签: 代写assignment健康保险道德风险

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