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摘要:本文讨论了与英国图像调查只有部分结果,并简要分析了英国的具体电影,电视节目和文学该产品采用了英国和被确......

交涉和媒体的流行文化形式,如电影,电视和文学构建旅游目的地的形象在影响人们的节日决策过程中一个显著的作用。本文介绍了基于从笔者的日本游客到英国的调查结果目的地媒体表示的意义,简要分析在片中哈利·波特与魔法石,电视系列节目福尔摩斯的创造了英国的流行图像,比阿特丽克斯·波特的彼得兔的故事,所有这些都被确定为调查的影响力。这表明,在英国是这些媒体的作品为代表的方式对其中日本游客界定英国为目的地和英国的性格方面的影响。因此,媒体的流行文化形式可以促进,确认并在一个非常强大的方式加强特定的图像,视图和目的地的身份。Representations and images of tourist destinations constructed by popular cultural forms of media such as films, television and literature play a significant role in influencing people’s holiday decision-making process. This article illustrates the significance of media representations of destinations based upon findings from the author’s survey of Japanese tourists to the UK and briefly examines popular images of the UK created in the film Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, the television series of Sherlock Holmes, and Beatrix Potter’s Peter Rabbit stories, all of which were identified as influential in the survey. It suggests that the ways in which the UK is represented in those media works have implications for the ways in which Japanese tourists define the UK as a destination and the character of the British. Thus, popular cultural forms of the media can promote, confirm and reinforce particular images, views, and identities of destinations in a very powerful manner. 

 

1. Introduction 介绍

 

许多旅游产生的国家可以今天后工业,后现代,全球化的社会中,媒体,特别是电子视觉媒体,通过在全球范围内提供的资料,陈述及世界各地的图片了大量主宰人们的日常生活特点。媒体如电视,电影和书籍的流行文化形式是被欣赏和人民群众消费的喜悦,快乐,白日梦的源泉方便和普遍的娱乐,幻想以及对世界的理解在日常生活中(凯里,1988年)。可以说,这是这些媒体陈述和图像,人们的实际消费,而不是现实,并通过他们了解世界。在旅游方面,这是说交易60旅游研究6:1的图像,期待,梦想和幻想(塞尔温,1996;乡绅,1996年),旅游目的地的媒体表示和图像在影响人们的节日决策过程为基础,发挥显著作用赖以游客使在哪里参观选择(耿,1972;亨特,1975年,Gartner的数据,1989年;巴特勒,1990;更加稳定,1990; Echtner和Ritchie,1991)。在一切形式的媒体在无数的陈述和场所和旅游目的地建设了突出的作用。媒体的流行文化形式,如电影,电视节目和小说,这是不直接涉及旅游宣传或营销,已经越来越多地发挥影响旅游业的权力,因此游客游览目的地作为它的结果创造一个不断增长的全球性现象其特征为:一本书,电影或电视上。这种现象创造了文化旅游的新形式 - “电影引发的旅游”(Riley等,1998),“与媒体有关的旅游”(巴斯比和克鲁格,2001:316),和'文学旅游“(巴特勒,1990年)。这些旅游的新形式可以归纳为“大众媒体引发的旅游”。本文认为,大众媒体引发的旅游和说明媒体代表和流行文化构建的旅游目的地,主要是绘制在在笔者的日本游客到英国大不列颠(英国)的调查收集的数据图像的意义。Many tourist-generating nations can be characterized today by post-industrial, postmodern, globalized societies in which media, in particular electronic visual media, dominate people’s everyday life by providing a vast amount of information, representations and images of the world on a global scale. Popular cultural forms of the media such as television, films and books are accessible and pervasive entertainment that is enjoyed and consumed by masses of people as a source of joy, pleasure, daydreaming, and fantasy as well as understanding of the world in everyday life (Carey, 1988). It can be argued that it is those media representations and images that people actually consume rather than realities, and through which they understand the world. In tourism, which is said to trade in  

60 tourist studies 6:1 images, expectations, dreams, and fantasies (Selwyn, 1996; Squire, 1996), those media representations and images of tourist destinations play a significant role in influencing people’s holiday decision-making process as the basis upon which tourists make choices about where to visit (Gunn, 1972; Hunt, 1975; Gartner,1989; Butler, 1990; Stabler, 1990; Echtner and Ritchie, 1991). The media in all their forms play a prominent role in myriad representations and constructions of places and tourist destinations. Popular cultural forms of the media such as films, television programmes and novels, which are not directly concerned with tourism promotion or marketing, have increasingly exerted the power to influence tourism, creating a growing worldwide phenomenon whereby tourists visit a destination as a result of it being featured in a book, film or on TV. This phenomenon has created new forms of cultural tourism – ‘movie-induced tourism’ (Riley et al., 1998),‘media-related tourism’ (Busby and Klug, 2001: 316), and ‘literary tourism’ (Butler, 1990). These new forms of tourism can be grouped as ‘popular media-induced tourism’. This article considers popular media-induced tourism and illustrates the significance of media representation and images of tourist destinations constructed in popular culture, drawing primarily upon data collected in the author’s survey of Japanese tourists to the United Kingdom of Great Britain (the UK). This article discusses only partial findings of the survey related to images of the UK and briefly examines the popular images of the UK created in specific films, television programmes and literature which feature the UK and were identified as influential in the survey. 

 

2. Popular media-induced tourism 大众传媒诱导旅游

 

Popular media-induced tourism involves tourist visits to a destination which has strong associations or connections with films, television programmes and novels (literary depictions and figures) or their authors (Squire, 1993; Riley et al., 1998). Places where literary works were set or writers were born or lived have always attracted literary pilgrims. Similarly, many places that provided locations for films and television productions have become popular tourist destinations. Popular media-induced tourism thus involves places or film locations which have been popularized or signified as tourist destinations by those popular cultural products, which are widely and internationally distributed and consumed by groups of ordinary people. Popular media-induced tourism abounds in many countries, involving both developed and developing countries in the world. For example, films set in Africa such as Out of Africa (1985), Gorillas in the Mist (1988), and Mountains of the Moon (1990) prompted thousands of visitors from the United States to visit the African continent due to the windfall exposure of Africa provided by those films (Coloccia, 1997). A novel, Anne of Green Gables as well as subsequent novels written by Lucy Maud Montgomery stimulated international tourist interest in the places she wrote about in Prince Edward Island of Canada and  

Iwashita Media representation of the UK for Japanese tourists 61 literary images of the island have contributed to the development of the tourism industry in that area (Squire, 1996). In Japan, South Korea has recently been a very popular destination for Japanese women aged in their 30s, 40s and 50s.This is partly due to the so-called ‘Korean Wave’ that surged through continued repeats of Korean television dramas such as Winter Sonata, Stairway to Heaven and Beautiful Days, all of which were shown in 2003 and 2004 in Japan and whose major filming locations have attracted Japanese tourists. In the UK,William Wordsworth with his poems and Beatrix Potter with her Peter Rabbit stories have motivated many tourists from all over the world to visit the Lake District which inspired many writers and provided the settings for their works. The UK has also provided locations for more than 100 internationally distributed films and television productions, many of which have attracted overseas tourists. A wide range of films and television programmes, such as Brief Encounter (1945), The Prisoner (1968), Upstairs, Downstairs (1971–1975), Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994), Braveheart (1995), The Full Monty (1997), and Notting Hill (1999), have transformed their film locations into international tourist attractions with varying degrees of success. 

 

3. Images of tourist destinations and media representations 旅游目的地形象与媒介表征

 

In tourism research destination image is most commonly described as the impressions or perceptions that a person has of a destination (e.g. Hunt, 1975; Phelps, 1986; Gartner and Hunt, 1987). In addition to the individual’s personal image, it should be noted that there are stereotyped images that are shared by groups of people. Acknowledging those aspects of images, Lawson and Baud-Bovy (1977: 10) define the term ‘tourist destination image’ as ‘the expression of all … knowledge, impressions, prejudice, imaginations, and emotional thoughts with which a person or a group judges a particular object or place’. Payson (1980 cited in Regan, 2000) suggests that it is first necessary to understand what is a national image in order to understand why people visit a particular destination. Nobody is likely to visit a country for a holiday if he or she has a negative attitude towards its nation and dislikes it for a certain reason, while a person is more likely to visit a nation for tourism if he or she likes the country. Knowledge of certain aspects of a nation, its nature, culture or society, may result in the construction of a positive or negative attitude toward that nation.An interest in the nation and its positive image can eventually lead to an actual visit to that country. Many studies on image across several fields and disciplines show that image is generally constructed by two major forces: external stimulus – factors including various information sources, and personal factors (socio-economic, cultural and psychological characteristics of the tourist).Thus, people’s images of places are built up from the various information sources, combined with their characteristics. It is said that the nature of tourists’ perceptions and images of tourist    

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