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摘要:本文的目的是考察在生物质能源转换单位就业成最终产品的各种技术的投资和运营成本。......

引进生物能源驱动的产品,如生物乙醇,生物柴油,热电联产的生产或固体生物燃料是实现欧盟设定的2010年(从RES20%的电力生产)目标至关重要。然而,为了达到这些目标,策略计划有关于生物质转化形成。本文的目的是检查参与已有的或新的生物质资源开发物流,分析各种方案在希腊利用生物质能和生物燃料的经济可行性。保留#2008爱思唯尔有限公司保留所有权利。The introduction of biomass driven energy products like bioethanol, biodiesel, Combined Heat and Power production or solid biofuels is vital for achieving the targets set from the EU for the year 2010 (20% electricity production from RES). However, in order to reach these targets, a policy plan has to be formed concerning the conversion of biomass. The aim of this paper is to examine the logistics involved in the exploitation of already available or new biomass resources and to analyse various scenarios for the economic feasibility of the use of biomass and biofuels in Greece. # 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 

 

1. Introduction 介绍

 

为了引进像希腊一个国家的政策计划,其中生物质可以由欧盟指令规定的2010年目标的实现发挥显著作用,经济分析是至关重要的。更精确地说,的主要来源,以及相关的功能和主要来源(物流)在供应链的成本受试者生产成本将要加以考虑。关于液体和固体生物燃料的最终处置问题也被认为是旁边的单位的经济可行性。In order to introduce a policy plan in a country like Greece, in which biomass can play a significant role for the achievement of the 2010 aims set by the EU directives, an economic analysis is vital. The aim of this paper is to examine the investment and operating costs of various technologies employed in the units of energy conversion of biomass into final products. More precisely, the production cost of primary sources as well as subjects related to the functionality and the cost of the supply chain of primary sources (logistics) are going to be considered. Issues concerning the final disposition of the liquid and solid biofuels are also considered alongside the economic viability of the units. 

 

2. The production cost of primary sources 主要来源的生产成本

 

2.1. Data for the production cost of primary sources One of the most important parameters that indicate the viability of the units that convert primary biomass into final energy products is the procurement cost of primary sources at the gate of these units. This cost consists of the following parts:   the production cost of primary sources;   the pre-treatment cost, either in their production area (e.g. chipping) in which case the cost is added to the procurement cost, or in the conversion unit (e.g. drying), in which case it is part of the general operating cost of the plant;   the transportation cost of primary sources to the conversion unit;   the profit of the primary source producer and the transporter. The production cost of primary sources has to be separated taking into account the fact that biomass may be already available (like for example the agricultural residues of the olive oil cultivation sector, or the sub-products of a specific production process, e.g. wood industry residues, or second generation fuels and organic waste), or new (energy crops). In this study, only the procurement cost of primary sources for energy corps will be examined, since the cost of already available biomass is linked with fuel availability studies. Finally it is assumed, that farmers are responsible for both production and transportation of primary sources to the conversion plants. This way the producer is the transporter and the profit of the producer is calculated for both the production and the transportation to the plants. 

 

2.2. Production cost of energy crops 

The main energy crops that will be discussed in this study are the following:   rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower for biodiesel production (in this study, sunflower will be exclusively researched, since it is an already known cultivation to Greek farmers);   sweet sorghum for bioethanol production (comparison with the already available relative cultivations);   fiber sorghum for electricity production or for the production of modified fuels (pellets and brickets). According to data provided by the Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) [1], the production cost and the economic analysis of energy crops for biodiesel and bioethanol production in Greece are presented in Tables 1 and 2. This data is also based on the 1st annual Report of the Greek Ministry of Development [2]. More recent references [3] raise the total production cost of sweet sorghum up to s 17 tonne 1 or, with an efficiency of Table 1

Production cost and economic analysis of energy crops for biodiesel production [1] Data Rapeseed Sunflower Irrigated Dry Irrigated Dry Efficiencies (kg/1000 m2) 300 180 300 175 Cost (s/tonne) 400 400 250 250 Gross income (s/1000 m2) 120 72 75 43.75 Field rent 28.50 12.00 28.50 12.00 Ploughing 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 Field preparation 10.00 10.00 5.00 5.00 Fertilizing 29.32 29.32 4.00 4.00 Sowing 13.20 13.20 8.40 8.40 Weed killing 9.20 9.20 4.60 4.60 Hoeing 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.20 Irrigation 10.00 10.00 Harvesting 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 Production cost (s/1000 m2) 124.42 97.92 84.69 58.19 Profit without subsidies (s/1000 m2)  4.42  25.92  9.69  14.44 Subsidies (s/1000 m2) 29.39 29.39 29.39 29.39 Profit without taxes and interest (s/1000 m2) 24.97 3.47 19.70 14.95  

I. Boukis et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13 (2009) 703–720

Table 2 Production cost and economic analysis of energy crops for bioethanol production [1] Data Grain Sweet sorghum Beet Corn Irrigated Dry Efficiencies (kg/1000 m2) 550 300 7000 6700 1172 Price (s/tonne) 130 130 20 50 132 Gross income (s/1000 m2) 71.5 39 140 335 154.7 Field rent 28.5 12 28.5 35 28.5 Ploughing 9 9 9 12.61 9 Field preparation 10 9.03 10 Fertilizing 14.4 14.4 10.8 33.45 34.3 Sowing 11.76 11.76 9.2 16.8 20.62 Weed killing 10 10 8.1 31.96 8.1 Hoeing 6.2 6.2 53.95 20.1 Irrigation 10 30 33.47 31.18 Harvesting 9 9 17.4 46.65 17.4 Production cost (s/1000 m2) 98.86 72.36 123.00 272.92 179.20 Profit without subsidies (s/1000 m2)  27.36  33.36 17.00 62.08  24.50 Subsidies (s/1000 m2) 51.05 51.05 26 59.02 Profit without taxes and interest (s/1000 m2) 23.69 17.69 43.00 62.08 34.52 8 tonnes/1000 m2,to s 136/1000 m2. Furthermore, concerning the production cost of sunflower, a slightly higher price of s86.80/1000 m2 is presented in literature [3]. Finally, for the field efficiencies of sunflower seed, an average value of 350 kg/ 1000 m2 may be used. It is also remarked that nowadays, the price of sunflower (more specifically the price of its seeds) is showing a decreasing tendency. In the German market [4] a price range of s160– 185 tonne 1 can be found, when in Greece a range of s180– 200 tonne 1 is referred [3]. The production cost and the economic analysis of energy crops for the production of solid biomass (for electricity production or for the production of second generation biofuels in Greece) is presented in Table 3. It has to be mentioned, that in the case of large scale introduction of biofuels in the energy balance of the European Union and in Greece, the above mentioned production costs (s/ tonne of primary sources) are expected to reduce significantly, since the cultivation efficiencies of energy crops will increase. As a comparison, it can be mentioned that the efficiencies of corn cultivation in USA has increased about 300% in 30 years [5]. 

 

2.3. Pre-treatment cost of primary sources (upstream conversion plant) 

The chipping of primary sources in the field and the production of chips is a very important and vital method for the

Table 3 Production cost and economic analysis of energy crops for the production of solid biomass [1] Fiber sorghum Cynara cardunculus (dry) Income of the producers Efficiencies (tonnes/1000 m2) 5.50 1.25 Selling price (s/tonne) 20.00 30.00 Subsidies (s/1000 m2) 26.02 29.39 Gross income (s/1000 m2) 136.02 66.89 Cost parts Field rent (s/1000 m2) 35.00 (28.0%) 9.00 (15.7%) Primary sources (s/1000 m2) 17.96 (14.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) Cultivation interferences (s/1000 m2) 72.84 (58.0%) 48.26 (84.3%) Total (s/1000 m2) 125.80 (100.0%) 57.26 (100.0%) Production cost (s/tonne) 22.87 45.81 Producers’ profit Profit without taxes and interest (s/1000 m2) 10.22 9.63 Profit without taxes and interest (s/tonne) 1.86 7.70  

I. Boukis et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13 (2009) 703–720 management and the pre-treatment of most of the primary sources for the following reasons:  It increases significantly the Specific Gravity of the transported material, from 75 to 125 kg/m3 for woody biomass (e.g. sweet and fiber Sorghum, corn, etc.), up to 300 to 350 kg/m3 for chips (there is an increase in the energy density of primary sources of  200%) and, consequently, that leads to a more economical and environmentally advantageous transportation of chips into the conversion plants.  The treatment of chips at the conversion plants (storage, transportation, feeding into other conversion units in order to improve the physical–chemical properties of biomass, e.g. drying) is much easier than that of the non-pre-treated biomass. The cost of biomass chipping is a function of various parameters, the most important of which is the potential of the needed instrumentation. It is estimated that the cost of chipping for energy crops (all year-round treatment) is about s4– 6 dry tonne 1 [6].   

本文标签: 生物燃料希腊生物量政策计划

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