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摘要:本文主要介绍了伊斯兰国家的法律体系。......

比较法,伊斯兰法的特性
 

伊斯兰法是一种自治宗教的法律体系,其基本内容主要基于《古兰经》。在这种体系里,你可以发现一个很重要的点与伊斯兰法相关,伊斯兰法律和实体权利是有区别的。在这一大多数人都信仰同一宗教的国家里,事实上,在伊斯兰国家是存在双重管制这一现象的。
 

伊斯兰”是阿拉伯语,它的意思是“方法”或“路径”,是一个术语,描述了每一个穆斯林的人必须遵循的方式。这个词实际上是他们所谓的伊斯兰法律。这个词可以应用到每一个宗教系统。在当今世界里,伊斯兰教法与穆斯林息息相关,同样它也适用于犹太教和犹太律法,或天主教和十诫。伊斯兰教法是一种法律框架,它用来监管人们的生活,穆斯林是一个神权国家,所以文本就是法律本身。

如今,伊斯兰法律是世界上三大最重要的法律制度之一,其他两个分别是法国集团(罗马或民法)和英美法律一系。
 

在这过去的50或60年,世界中心都不在阿拉伯国家,特别是在第二次世界大战时,大部分的边界是由国外设置的。
 

Comparative law, characteristics of the islamic system
 

Comparative law, characteristics of the Islamic Law
 

The Islamic law is an autonomous religious system of law which is based mainly on the Koran. Here, one can see one of the most important points related with this law: there is a difference between the ISLAMIC LAW and the POSITIVE RIGHT of a country in which most of the population follows this religion. In fact, a double jurisdiction exists in countries under Islamic law.

 

“Sharia” is an Arabic word which means “way” or “path” and is a term describing the way that every Muslim person must follow. This term is in fact what they call the Islamic law. This word could be applied to every religious system. In modern times, sharia has been related with the Muslim world, but it also applies to Judaism and the Torah, or Catholicism and the Ten Commandments. Sharia is thus the legal framework in which life is regulated. Muslim states are theocratic, so this text is law itself.

 

Nowadays, Islamic Law is one of the three most important legal systems, the other two being the French group (roman or civil law) and the common law group.

 

Within the last 50 or 60 years, states were founded within the Arabic world, especially after the Second World War when most of the borders were set by foreign countries.

 

In most of these states a jurisdiction problem exists between the Islamic law (connected with the religion) and the ability of the state to make its own positive law. Due to this dichotomy, over the years various states have approached this problem in different ways, to the extreme: from the Taliban in Afghanistan to Turkey, which is striving to attain a western legal system. In the middle, one can find as many answers to this dichotomy as Muslim countries exist.

 

One important and unique principle of this legal system is that the state can create new laws only in the fields which Allah had not revealed. Thus, the law is tied directly to the Muslim faith and only Muslims can be charged within this legal framework. Due to this principle, a problem emerges for the governments which have non-Muslims living in their jurisdiction because the religious law could not be applied to them. It is because of this issue that in many countries both public and private law were set together in a new fashion so that it could be applied to the entire population, even to non Muslims.

 

Origins: The Islam's history
 

According to Muslims, Sharia is founded on the teachings of Allah and sayings of Muhhamad as founded in the Quran and Sunnah. However it is necessary to know how the Arabic world was before the IV century when Muhhamad makes his appearance around the year 570 or 580 BC.

 

This old world did not know a central political organization but tribes which were composed by relatives. Each tribe had a tribal leader and everybody reported directly to him. Most of these tribes had a nomadic lifestyle but others settled down and gave origin to different cities. Although they did not have a community sense, every tribe could recognize a common historical beginning, a culture in which they based their beliefs or religion; they were polytheists. Because of this origin, leaders agreed in depositing some objects which represented their worship and adoration in the same place. They built a cuboidal black house in the important city of Mecca: The Kaaba which would become the most sacred place of the Islam. Every tribe made a pilgrimage each year to this place to adore the Kaaba, which is now a ritual taken literally for Muslims.

 

本文标签: 宗教Islamic伊斯兰 Law法律 religion

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