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摘要:本文是一篇留学生家族企业分析的assignment,Flsren (1998)定义了一个家族企业的公司要满足一下的其中一个因素:(1)50%或......

荷兰assignment 演替过程中的隐性知识转移
 

如今,很多企业老板都退休了,并且不得不交出业务(KvK,2009)。由于荷兰人口的老龄化,预期未来几年这个数字将增加。预计在即将到来的这一年将出现18000起业务转移。四分之一的业务转移是发生在家族企业中, 具体的业务知识是家族企业的成功的关键因素, 隐性知识的转移不佳将导致企业的失败。当前的业务所有者和未来的业务所有者的个人关系对转移知识至关重要(Accountancynieuws,2008)。
 

研究将探讨家族企业在哪些方面的知识更容易转移给家庭成员,以及这是否会导致一个家庭接班人的选择。
 

理论背景
 

对家族企业的定义
 

Flsren (1998)定义了一个家族企业的公司要满足一下的其中一个因素:(1)50%或更多的股票属于一个家庭;(2)一个家庭有重大的影响;(3)重要的管理委员会的成员来自一个家庭。

萨拉,海顿和萨尔瓦托(2004)将家族企业定义为至少一个家庭成员在公司的所有权占有一定的份额,并且几代人都在公司中追求领导地位。

 

Transfer Of Tacit Knowledge In The Succession Process  Essay

 

Nowadays, a lot of business owners are retiring and have to hand over the business (KvK, 2009). Expectations are that this number will increase the next years due to the aging of the Dutch population. Expectations are that there will occur 18.000 business transfer in upcoming years. In a quarter of business transfers in family businesses, the crucial success factor of a family business, specific business knowledge, perish due to a suboptimal transfer of this implicit knowledge. A personal relationship between the current business owner and the prospective business owner is essential for transferring knowledge (Accountancynieuws, 2008).

 

This research investigates in what way knowledge in family firms is more easily transferred to family members, and whether this leads to the choice for a family successor.

 

Theoretical Background

 

Definition of family business

 

Fl?ren (1998) defines a company as a family business when it fulfills one of these factors: (1) 50% or more of the shares are owned by one family; (2) one family has major influence; and (3) a significant degree of the members of the management board are from one family.

 

Zahra, Hayton and Salvato (2004) defined family firms as the companies where at least one family member has a distinguishable share in ownership and where multiple generations pursue leadership positions within the firm. Most existing definitions of family business take ownership and management/control into account (Chua, Chrisman and Sharma, 1999). Chua et al. (1999) propose that a definition of family business must reflect the uniqueness of family businesses. This uniqueness is not reflected in ownership or control, but as scientific researchers believe, the family element moulds the company in a way that family members of executives in non-family firms cannot (Lansberg, 1983). To reflect the uniqueness of family business and to avoid excluding some family businesses because of a too narrow definition, Chua et al. (1999) define a family business as a business directed with the intention to mould and pursue the vision of the company by a small group of family in a way that is maintainable across family generations.

 

2.2 Succession process (voor- en nadelen van een familie-successor bespreken?)

 

As Chirico (2008) summarizes, commitment, psychological ownership, and family relationships are some of the most important factors facilitating the creation, sharing and transfer of knowledge in the succession process to a high degree.

 

The sharing of tacit knowledge is positively influenced by strong relationships between two generations of a family, because this positively influences the training and development of successors (Chirico, 2008).

 

Resource based theory for investigating family businesses

 

According to the resourced based view, the unique set of resources are the basis for a firm’s competitive advantage (Grant, 1991; Rangone, 1999). According to Aaker (1989) the assets and skills of a firm provide the foundation of a sustainable competitive advantage and long-term performance. The RBV states that the long-term competitiveness of a company depends on its endowment of resources that differentiate the firm from its competitors, that are durable and that are difficult to imitate and substitute (Grant, 1991; Rangone, 1999). So a firm may have strategic resources, but does not necessarily achieve a competitive advantage, because the firm has to use the strategic resources in a right way to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. The resource based view does not consider all the resources a company possesses, but focuses only on critical or strategic resources (Rangone, 1999). Four categories of firm resources are: (1) physical capital resources (plant, raw materials); (2) human capital resources (skills, knowledge, relationship, training); (3) organizational capital resources (competencies, policies, culture, control, information, technology); and (4) process capital resources (knowledge, skills, disposition, and commitment to communication, leadership, and

 

the team) (Habbershon and Williams, 1999).

 

This resources are the basis of the sustainable competitive advantage of a company, and include: financial resources, physical assets, human resources, organizational resources, skills, know-how and competencies, brand and reputation (Rangone, 1999).

 

To determine if a resource is critical, a resource has to be competitive superior, inimitable, durable, appropriable and non-substitutable (Rangone, 1999). If a resource differentiates the firm from its competitors, it is competitive superior. Inimitablity means that it is difficult for competitors to imitate the resource. A durable resource means that the resource benefits the firm in the long-term. If a firm is getting the value created from the resource, the resource is appropriable. If a resource is non-substitutable, it is difficult to replace the resource with an alternative that gives the same advantages. A RBV analysis has to take into account the individual resources of as firm and after determining these, analyze the collaboration of these resources to create capabilities in order to create a competitive advantage (Grant, 1995).

 

Because family firms have been described before as unusually dynamic, complex, and in the possession of much intangible resources (Habbershon and Williams, 1999), the resource-based view is an appropriate method for analyzing family firms (Cabrera-Suárez, De Saá-Perez and García-Almeida, 2001).

 

Family business resources

 

Sirmon and Hitt (2003) qualify five unique characteristics, derived from the incorporation of the family in the firm:

 

Human capital: there are advantages and disadvantages of the dual relationships of family members. Disadvantages are that the acquirement of personnel can be difficult, because family firms have other requirements and other goals with acquiring personnel. Advantages are remarkably commitment, close relationships and the potential for firm specific tacit knowledge.

 

Social capital consist of three components: (1) structural component, consisting of network ties; (2) cognitive component, consisting of shared language and stories; and (3) relational component, based on norms, trust and commitment.

 

Survivability capital: due to the loyalty, strong ties and long-term commitment in family firms, family firms have the advantage of survivability capital, which a nonfamily firm has not. Survivability capital can help sustain the business, e.g. during the recent economic recession, in that the above mentioned factors makes all employees more willing to save the firm.

 

Patient capital: finance within a family company has positive and negative sides. Most family firms avoid sharing equity with nonfamily members, so they have limited sources of external financial capital. On the other hand, family firms have generally the incentive to exist for a long time, which creates patient capital, which is capital provided for the long term. This patient capital enables a firm to pursue more creative and innovative strategies.

 

Governance structure: the governance structure of family business will be more desirable because the lack of agency costs.

 

Productivity is another factor which is different in family versus non-family firms. Family members have been described as more productive than nonfamily employees, because more efficient communication and greater privacy in exchanging information is provided through the ‘family language’ (Habershon and Williams, 1999). If the current business owner and the successor are on the same communication level, the likelihood of effective succession increases (Dyck, Mauws, Starke and Mischke, , 2002).

 

Tagiuri and Davis (1996) mention the generation of unusual motivation, powerful loyalties and a high level of trust as a result of family relationships.

 

As an example of the advantage of family companies, Swinth and Vinton (1993) mention that shared family values across cultures endure cultural barriers more effectively.  

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