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摘要:本文是分析国际和地区经济的一体化和全球化的一篇香港assignment,可供需要写作assignment的同学参考。......

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如今,国际和地区经济的一体化是全球化的背景下的一个主导趋势。近年来,按照越南共产党的一贯政策, ,越南刺激了其一体化进程,并且发展了与其他国家的双边和多边经济关系。到目前为止,越南与约70个国家和地区建立了关系,与国际金融机构关系正常化,如世界银行 (WB)、国际货币基金组织(IMF),亚洲开发银行(ADB),等等,成为了东南亚国家联盟(东盟)的成员,参与亚洲-欧洲会议(ASEM);加入亚太经济合作组织(APEC);尤其是在2007年11月1日,越南正式成为世贸组织第150个成员国。
 

世贸组织是世界上最大的贸易机构,占世界贸易的97%以上。越南加入WTO意味着将需要修改其政策和法律,来遵守世贸组织的规定和协议,有必要逐步降低关税和非关税壁垒。因此,对倾销问题的处理将会增多并需要仔细地考虑。作为世贸组织的成员,越南将融入全球的“游乐场”,其他成员会使用反倾销措施作为贸易保护主义的工具来保护其国内产业。

 

Regional and international economic integration and globalization

 

Nowadays, regional and international economic integration is a dominant trend in the context of globalization. Pursuant to the Vietnamese Communist Party’s consistent policy, in recent years, Vietnam has stimulated its integration process and developed the bilateral and multilateral economic relations with other countries. Up to now, the country has established relations with about 70 nations and territories; normalized relations with the international financial institutions such as World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Asian Development Bank (ADB), etc.; become a member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN); participated in Asia – Europe Meeting (ASEM); joined Asia – Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC); and especially on November 1, 2007, Vietnam has officially become WTO’s 150th member.

 

WTO is the biggest trade body in the world accounting for over 97% of world trade. Joining WTO means that Vietnam will have to amend its policies and laws in order to comply with WTO regulations and agreements of which it is necessary to progressively reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers. Thus, the problem dealing with dumping will be raised and need to be considered carefully. As a member of WTO, Vietnam will integrate into global “playground” where other members have been using antidumping measures as protectionist tools to protect their domestic industries. In that case, it is essential for Vietnam to start to impose antidumping measures on dumped imports into Vietnam in order to protect domestic industries and national market, and to create a level playing field for either domestic or foreign manufacturers.

 

In recent years, there have been more and more antidumping cases in both developed and developing countries. Vietnam is a developing country that has exported many goods to other countries. According to the statistics of WTO, between 1995 and 2008, Vietnam has been faced 23 antidumping cases. For example, the US has initiated antidumping investigations against Vietnamese catfish and shrimp, EU has initiated antidumping investigations against Vietnamese gas lighter, bicycles, etc. In comparison, Vietnam has not initiated any antidumping investigation although some specialists said that many goods originating from China, South Korea, Thailand and the US could have been dumped into Vietnam.

 

On April 29, 2004, the Standing Committee of Vietnam's National Assembly has passed Ordinance No. 20/2004/PL-UBTVQH, concerning the Dumping of Imported Goods into Vietnam (the Antidumping Ordinance). This is the main legal text on antidumping of Vietnam. The Antidumping Ordinance has laid a legal foundation for the application of antidumping measures. However, it is not a simple matter to enforce antidumping law. It is found that many goods with extremely low price are imported into Vietnam but the authorities still can not initiate an antidumping investigation because of the lack of evidence. Besides, antidumping investigation is a complicated process. The expenses for an investigation are huge. Thus, many factors need to be considered before Vietnamese firms can take legal action against dumped imports. If Vietnam does not consider carefully each factor, it can lead to wrong conclusions. Then relations between Vietnam and other countries could be affected badly. Vietnam may even face with a lawsuit in the Dispute Settlement Body (i.e. the body of WTO makes decisions on trade disputes) that has negative impacts on Vietnam’s prestige in the world market.

 

OBJECTIVES AND RELEVANCE OF THE RESEARCH

 

The study compares Vietnam antidumping law with WTO antidumping law that contributes to specify some main points of dumping and antidumping law; and then find out the problems arising from the application of Vietnam antidumping law, thereof come up with some recommendations to improve the antidumping law and to increase its enforcement as well.

 

Studying WTO antidumping law and Vietnam antidumping law in depth and in detail plays an important part in the protection of national benefits and active international economic integration.

 

First, studying WTO antidumping law and Vietnam antidumping law will help the Vietnam authorities have good sense of direction and amendment to improve the antidumping law in conformity with WTO antidumping law when Vietnam has become a member of this organization. As stated in paragraph 253 of the Report of the Working Party on the Accession of Vietnam, “The representative of Viet Nam confirmed that his Government would ensure that any legislation in place at the time of accession providing for the application of measures taken for (…) antidumping (…) purposes would be in conformity with the provisions of the WTO Agreements (…) on Antidumping (…).”

 

Second, studying WTO antidumping law and Vietnam antidumping law will help the Vietnam authorities develop the antidumping law, thereby increase antidumping law enforcement to protect domestic industries and national market effectively and to create a healthy competitive environment for both domestic and foreign manufacturers. Simultaneously, it can also help Vietnam reduce the possibility of being taken to the Dispute Settlement Body when imposing antidumping measures.

 

Third, studying WTO antidumping law and Vietnam antidumping law intensively permits the Vietnamese enterprises and Government to actively file and pursue antidumping lawsuits.

 

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

 

2.1. DEFINITION OF DUMPING

 

In Vietnam, the general meaning of dumping is an act “of selling goods at prices lower than the market prices in order to compete, control the market” [1] . The Vietnamese online dictionary dated 18 March 2004 of the Vietnam lexicography centre has defined dumping as “selling massive goods at prices lower than the market prices, even at losses, in order to increase competitiveness and control the market”. Likewise, the definition of dumping here only has the comparison between the prices of selling goods and the market prices in the same market.

 

However, in international trade, the concept of dumping has a long history. Dumping is defined variously and central to all these definitions is the concept of price discrimination in different markets. The classic work of Jacob Viner named “Dumping: A Problem in International Trade” (Chicago, 1923) was the starting point for economists and dumping trade issue. In his book, Viner noted the statement by Alexander Halmilton, US Secretary of the Treasury in 1791, warning about foreign country practices of underselling competitors in other countries. Other instances of allegations of dumping by British manufacturers into the new American market were reported, and public discussion on this problem as well as various legislative attempts to deal with it were reported during most of the nineteenth century. Viner also reported that during the early twentieth century dumping was most widespread by firms in Germany and first defined dumping as “price discrimination between national markets” [2] . In international trade, dumping is said to “… occur when a company sells goods abroad at prices lower than the prices charged for the same or similar goods in that company’s domestic market” [3] . According to the legal definition in Article VI, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994 and Article 2.1, Antidumping Agreement (ADA), a product is considered as being dumped when its export price is less than its normal value, that is less than the sale of a like product in the domestic market in the ordinary course of trade. The definition is widely applied by countries around the world. In the US, dumping was changed from less than the normal value into Less Than Fair Value (LTFV). Fair value is defined as the price in the home market of the exporter [4] . A product is said to be dumped if its export price is less than fair value and that caused material injury to the US domestic industry. In EU, regarding the Council Regulation (European Community) No 384/96 of 22 December 1995 on protection against dumped imports from non-EU countries, a product is to be considered as being dumped if “its export price to the Community is less than a comparable price for the like product, in the ordinary course of trade, as established for the exporting country” [5] .  

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