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摘要:本文是一篇哈尔茨改革的目标的留学生assignment,Gerhard Schroeders 2010议程已经改变了这个共和国:通过哈尔茨四号方案失......

1. 哈尔茨改革的目标
 

Gerhard Schroeders 2010议程已经改变了这个共和国:通过哈尔茨四号方案失业救济被废除,临时工作和小型工作被自由化,并且“Sozial?mter”和“Arbeitsagenturen ”汇集在了一起。到目前为止,德国人仍然在为改革而奋斗,我们可以想象到失业者的未来。
 

对哈尔茨四号方案改革的讨论是一个热门的话题,在2011年也是如此。关于增加基本津贴的谈判正在进行,准备工作也开始接受审定。几乎没有一天人们不打开收音机、电视或打开报纸,听到、看到或读到的至少一个关于ALG II的讨论。哈尔茨四号方案已成为一个社会、政治激烈交流观点的焦点。政治相关人士范德莱恩女士必须处理这个问题,但哈尔茨四号方案新顶级会议的几天前,社民党和奥地利绿党威胁说要中断谈话。社民党 “明镜在线”负责人Sigmar Gabriel表示“如果基民盟和自民党不努力,谈判可能会失败”。

 

1.The Goals Of The Hartz Reforms Economics Essay

 

Gerhard Schroeders Agenda 2010 has changed the Republic: Through Hartz IV unemployment benefits were abolished, temporary work and mini-jobs were liberalized and “Sozial?mter” were pooled together with the “Arbeitsagenturen”. To this date, the Germans fight about the reform - and what you can expect of the unemployed.

 

Debates on the Hartz IV reforms are one of the hot topics, also in year 2011. Negotiations concerning an increase in the basic allowances take place, arrangements are being reviewed. Almost no day goes by where you do not turn on the radio or television or open the newspaper, and hear, see or read at least one discussion on ALG II. Hartz IV has become a social, political and social focal point for heated exchanges of views. The politics around Mrs. von der Leyen has to deal with the issue, but a few days before the new top-level meeting to Hartz IV SPD and die Grünen threatened to break off conversations. ‘If the CDU and FDP do not make an effort, the negotiations could fail,’ said Sigmar Gabriel, head of the SPD to "Spiegel Online".

 

Politics is in dispute and unhappy about the employment situation. There are many dissenting votes on all questions and opinions. It is not easy to agree when it comes to potential improvements. The unemployment numbers do not decrease as expected, which also regurgitates the unemployment benefit recipients. The discontent with the system of welfare state bureaucracy is large. Disappointed, are unemployed, who still see no chance even after dozens of applications. But disappointed are also many who work and still do not have more money than if they would not work.

 

‘The Hartz IV reform has missed its main goal,’ the CDU economy politician Kurt Lauk says: ‘Hartz IV has become a political aside premium of the labor market.’

 

But what are the objectives of the unemployment benefit reform?

 

With this work I will primarily focus on this raised question. The various goals will be discussed. Information about how far they have been achieved will be given.

 

To start with for a more profound understanding a brief history of the Hartz reforms will be supplied. Going on the four main incentives will be described and analyzed, to then give a conclusion on the Hartz IV reforms and their situation.

 

2 History of Hartz IV

 

In 2002, on the 22nd of February, the Committee for Modern Services in the Labor Market was employed by the Federal Government of Germany, which is better known as the Hartz Committee, named after the head of commission Peter Hartz.

 

Proposals to improve the efficiency of the labor market policy and suggestions to reform the Federal Labor Office were required due to the persistently high unemployment in Germany. The committee formulated thirteen “innovation modules”; a set of recommendations; that were eventually put into practice by January 1st in 2005.

 

2. 1 The Phases I –III

 

The “Hartz-Paket”, as it was called in the German media, contains a bunch of different measures. For better implementation of the governmental process, the actions were divided into separate legislations to reform the labor market (“Gesetze zur Reform des Arbeitsmarktes”) with the abbreviations Hartz I, Hartz II, Hartz III and Hartz IV; the individual laws came gradually into force between 2003 and 2005.

 

Hartz I, with effect from 1. January 2003:

 

First Act for Modern Services on the Labor Market

 

facilitation of new forms of work

 

promotion of professional education by the Federal Employment Agency (FbW), introduction of education vouchers

 

allowance by the Federal Institute

 

temporary work in corporation with Personnel Service Agencies (PSA)

 

Hartz II with effect from 1. January 2003

 

Second Act for Modern Services on the Labor Market

 

The law contains provisions that were partially put into practice later.

 

regulation of the employment categories of smaller employment (mini-jobs and midi jobs) with effect from 1. April 2003

 

“Ich- AG”

 

establishment of job centers

 

Hartz III, with effect from 1. January 2004

 

Third Act for Modern Services on the Labor Market

 

restructuring and rebuilding of the Federal Employment Office (“Arbeitsamt”) into the Federal Employment Agency (“Agentur für Arbeit”)

 

2.2 Phase IV: Hartz IV

 

The fourth and last phase came into operation on the 1. January of 2005. The principal adjustment of this phase was the merging of the former unemployment benefits for long term unemployed (“Arbeitslosenhilfe”) and the welfare benefits (“Sozialhilfe”). The fusion of these social benefits was to serve as an avoidance of administration efforts and to aid to create transparency in unemployment statistics, as well as to improve coordination and accountability. Hence ALGII is a fixed rate of benefits. After one year of receiving ALGI, which is coupled with the former payment, one falls into the category of Hartz IV. The current benefit lies at 359€ per month (for a single person) excluding the cost of adequate housing and is not linked to the former remuneration. Additional benefits can be filed for, but only initial equipment is provided, as to strengthen the individual responsibility for clothing, furniture or the like. Assistance is rendered in the field of job placing and job application training. On the other hand; sanction possibilities in form of cuttings of benefits shall to secure the cooperation willingness. This principle of conveyance and demanding is supposed to be the temporarily assurance of the socio-economic subsistence level.

 

3 Goals of the Hartz Reform

 

The goal of the master plan was to reduce the number of unemployed from four million to two million within three years, to upgrade the support and supervision by the employees of the Federal Employment Office and to shorten the unemployment duration from 33 to 22 weeks, and thereby to save 19.6 billion Euros.

 

Summarized, four main aims were/are targeted:

 

- decrease of unemployment

 

- improvement of mentoring

 

- reduction of unemployment duration

 

- cutback welfare costs

 

3.1 Decrease of Unemployment

 

Now, six years after the implementation of the Hartz reforms studies have different opinions on the efficiency of the various adjustments.

 

Politics and the IAB allege that the impact on the situation of unemployment is generally rated as positive. As the diagram 1 below shows the number of unemployed people dropped significantly since 2005. Only during 2009 a rise can be witnessed. The global economic crisis resulted in an overall lack of demand, like economies can and often do suffer from. The majority of markets was affected, and had to deal with a loss in production and demand.

 

Diagram 1: Unemployed in Germany distinguished between sexes – time series of annual mean values of 1991 - 2009

 

Source: Arbeitsmarkt-Nav.html (13.01.2011); own illustration

 

Contrariwise, when looking at the statistics considering the recipients of ALGII only, one can see that not a lot has changed during the time period of more than five years.

 

Diagram 2: People receiving ALGII distinguished between sexes – time series of annual mean values of 2005 – 2009

 

Source: (26.01.2011); own illustration  

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