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印度医疗纺织品市场目前的价值约5亿美元,并且可预见每年大约10 - 12%的强劲增长。然而,与全球市场的82.38亿美元相比,印度市场规模仍是很小的[3]。
The Medical Textiles Market In India
Medical Textiles come under the category of technical textile. Medical textiles are the products and constructions used for medical and biological applications and are used primarily for first aid, clinical and hygienic purposes. It consists of all those textile materials used in health and hygienic applications in both consumer and medical markets [1].
Textile has always been a part of healthcare. But it is only recently that its application has started going beyond the usual wound care and incontinence products, plasters, clothing, bedding, etc. With latest innovations in textile technology, a wide variety of woven, non-woven and knitted forms of textile are increasingly finding their way into a variety of surgical procedures [2].
The Indian market for medical textiles, currently worth around US$500 million, is witnessing robust growth of about 10-12% a year. However, compared with a global market of US$8238 million, Indian market size is still very small [3].
According to experts, one of the main reasons for India not producing enough technical textiles is a very high duty on the import of its machinery coupled with the need for a high investment. This has automatically resulted in a high demand for imports [2].
Healthcare textiles comprise surgical clothing (gowns, caps, masks, uniforms etc.), surgical covers (drapes, covers etc.) and beddings (sheets, blankets, pillow cases etc.). Healthcare textiles can be disposable or non-disposable [4].
Concerns over infection in the operating room have stimulated research into improved surgical gowns and drapes. Several studies have confirmed the superiority of single-use surgical products in terms of resistance to bacterial and liquid penetration. Further improvements can be expected for single-use surgical textiles with new nonwovens and films that improve barrier performance and comfort properties for gowns.
In the reusable segment, development has been concerned with the production of laminates, particularly spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) nonwoven structures [5].
In India health care textile continues to be dominated by non-disposable however in the world disposable textiles are fast replacing non-disposables.
Market for Health care textiles
In line with the growth of the Healthcare sector, healthcare textiles overall are growing at a rate of 13-16% a year. Healthcare textiles are valued at US$26.72 million [3].
Surgical dressings include wound care products and bandages. Wound care products include wound contact layer / absorbent pad / base material / non-adherent dressings / perforated films, while bandages include inelastic bandages /elastic bandages / light support bandages / orthopedic cushion bandages / plasters /waddings / guazes / lint [4].
Bandages are one of the most important medical textiles and have a range of uses, including retention of dressings, providing support to joints, preventing the development of oedema, exerting pressure on a limb, treating skin diseases and providing protection against physical damage.
The fibers and fabrics used for bandage applications are dependent upon their intended functions. Warp-knitted spacer fabrics, elasticated woven fabrics, tubular knitted hose with elastane fiber, and nonwovens, for example, are widely used [5].
Different types of bandages are gauze bandage (simple woven strip of material), compression bandage, triangular bandage (cloth cut into a right-angled triangle), tube bandage (woven in a continuous circle) [6].
Fibrin bandages have been manufactured by saturating a biodegradable cloth with blood-clotting chemicals and an enzyme purified from human blood, which prevents excessive blood loss in severe injuries [5].
Orthopedic cushions are made of cotton and synthetics. These bandages retain their cushioning effect in the moist atmosphere between skin and plaster. The plaster of Paris bandages are made of cotton gauze material of leno weave cloth. The interlocking thread is impregnated in the plaster of Paris solution and dried to get the bandages [4].
No single dressing is useful for all types of wounds. Often a number of different types will be used during the healing process of a single wound. An ideal dressing performs the following functions: maintenance of a moist environment at the wound/ dressing interface, absorption of excess exudates without leakage to the surface of wound dressing, pliable, thermal insulation & mechanical protection, bacterial protection, gaseous and fluid exchange, absorption of wound odor, non-adherent to the wound and easy removal without trauma, debridment action ( removal of dead tissue / or foreign particles), non-toxic, non-allergic and non-sensitising (to both patient & medical staff), and sterile.
Table2: Classification of wound dressing types
Traditional dressings that provide cover over the wound, e.g. gauze and tulle dressings
Polymeric films and forms which are mostly transparent, permeable to water vapor and oxygen, non-permeable to bacteria, e.g. hyaluronic acid, hydrogels, foam dressings
Dressings which deliver substances active in wound healing, e.g. hydrocolloids, alginates, collagens, chitosan
These can also be classified as gauze, tulle, semi permeable film (Sterile sheet of polyurethane coated with acrylic adhesive), Hydrocolloids (Composed of carboxymethylcellulose, gelatin, pectin, elastomers and adhesives that turn into a gel when exudate is absorbed), hydrogels, alginates (Composed of calcium alginate , a seaweed component), Polyurethane or silicone foams, hydrofibre (Soft non-woven pad or ribbon dressing made from sodium carboxymethylcellulose fibers), and collagen containing dressings [7].
Traditionally cotton guazes were used for dressing because of their good absorption property and softness. Even today hospitals use the gauzes for dressing purposes mostly in layers to form swabs for better and higher absorption [4].
Waddings are single use cotton pieces in great demand abroad. In India, for clinical practices as well as domestic purpose cotton rolls are preferred, pieces of cotton are removed as and when required. In the foreign countries, sterile single use cotton waddings are highly popular [4].
Lint is used as wipes or swabs for primary cleaning of wounds before applying the dressings [4].
Market for surgical dressings
India's market for surgical dressings, currently valued at US$ 154.43 million, is growing at a rate of around 5-10% a year. Some of the multinationals, including Johnson & Johnson, are leading manufacturers of surgical dressings in the country. However, a large segment of the production is also done in the decentralized small-scale sector, which does not follow any quality and production standards.
The unorganized state of production is further evident from the fact that there are no standard testing facilities for surgical dressings in the country. Multinationals use their own in house testing facilities for their products.
Hospitals and institutions buy 60% of the total sales of surgical dressings, the remainder being sold to individuals and general practitioners [3].
Sanitary napkin or menstrual pad is a disposable absorbent worn by females to receive and absorb menstrual flow. These are similar to incontinence pads but with lower absorbency. Kotex lists the materials used in their Maxi and Regular disposable pads as being made "mostly of wood cellulose fibers", the "outer cover and the moisture-proof shields are made with a moisture-proof plastic such as polypropylene or polyethylene" [8].
Market for sanitary napkin
The Indian market for sanitary napkins is dominated by a few multinational companies - such as Johnson & Johnson, Kimberly Clark, Procter & Gamble" - who between them account for 80-85% of the total market. The remainder is taken by smaller units (those with an annual turnover of US$667 000 or less) in the decentralized sector. Earlier the government reserved the production to be limited by SSI, now government realizing the potential of this segment, has dereserved the production in order to attract investment.
The technical textiles or nonwovens component in sanitary napkins stands at a little less than 1.5 kt a year, most of which is met through imports at present" [3].

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