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摘要:尽管反垄断法在很大程度上能够消减垄断行为给正常的竞争秩序所带来的巨大危害。但是,若不加区分的将任何垄断......

尽管反垄断法在很大程度上能够消减垄断行为给正常的竞争秩序所带来的巨大危害。但是,若不加区分的将任何垄断行为均加以限制,同样可能损及本国的发展。本文认为,反垄断法的豁免权为了保障本国公共利益,实现特定的经济产业政策应运而生的。它通过行政或司法的国家授权获致了合法性地位,或以类型豁免的方式存在,或以个案豁免而发挥协调作用。并且,随着反垄断法立法的发展,反垄断法的豁免权在司法适用中需要交叉使用合理原则与本身违法原则。一般而言,反垄断法豁免权在司法适用过程中首先需要将严重限制竞争行为或严重损及市场经济发展的行为排除于豁免权之外,再考虑其合理性。
 
Abstract: although the antitrust laws to a great extent, decreases the monopoly to the huge harm brought by the normal competition order. However, if indiscriminate will limit any monopoly, also could hurt the country's development. This paper argues that the antitrust laws immunity in order to protect the interests of its public and implement specific economic industrial policy arises at the historic moment. It by state authorized to achieve the legality of administrative or judicial status, or by type of existence, the manner of the release or in case immunity and play a coordinating role. And, with the development of anti-monopoly legislation, antitrust immunity in judicial application need to cross use reasonable principle and the itself illegal principle. Immunity in general, the antimonopoly law in the process of judicial application must first be severely restrict competition behavior or serious damage and excluded from the immunity of the development of market economy, to consider its rationality.
 
Hundred years, the antitrust laws from scratch, has become the one of the most important legal system to modern market economy society. Throughout the antitrust legislation of all countries, the monopoly of basic attitude are very similar, adopt the summarizes the basic attitude of ban. However, with the rapid development of economic exchanges, the ata also appeared some legislation has not considered the beginning of the conflict, such as in certain public domain laissez-faire competition, may damage to their own public interest. Therefore, countries in the monopoly into forbidden content at the same time, also with the necessary immunity. This article chose the immunity of anti-monopoly law as the breakthrough point, will exist in immunity and detailed exploration of the antitrust law significance and its existing way, and provide two cents for the judicial practice.
 
The concept of antitrust immunity
 
Antitrust immunity refers to the violation of the anti-monopoly law regulation of specific subjects, a particular industry and enterprise, request permission to countries to facilitate, admit, methods such as the scope of rights illegal behavior out of the antimonopoly law. That is to say, the anti-monopoly law itself admitted to a certain behavior or specific areas of the existence of certain monopoly status and monopoly behavior for legal, shall be investigated for and sanctions from the antitrust laws. Like the law, the anti-monopoly law exemption also the anti-monopoly legal system and an important part in them. Its legal meaning is its basic principle and basic system in the law of the system into a small piece of free zone, in this area, economic freedom and economic democracy and effective competition relegated to a secondary position, abstract economy as a whole to become the main value orientation and the society as a whole benefits. In general, took a generalization about monopoly all countries and the exceptions allowed pattern is prohibited. Among them, the antitrust immunity exists in exception allowed legal norms, for example, intentions unified European antitrust legislation as prescribed in paragraph 1 of article 81 of the ec treaty Generalization can be regarded as the concentrated reflection of the basic attitude, but its under paragraph 3 of article 81, and immunity against the agreement made exceptions.
 
The existence of antitrust immunity
 
(1) antitrust immunity legal basis: safeguard the public interest
 
Many established the antitrust laws in the world countries, mostly from its own actual situation, formulate the corresponding exemption system, to safeguard the country's overall public interest, enhance the country's comprehensive national strength, play a full role on the international stage. In general, the public interest refers to the main national country pursue benefit, right or benefits, reflect the country and the nation needs and interests of various kinds of interest groups. However, not all public interests can be a antitrust exemption of legal reasons. Immunity in anti-monopoly law public interests based on the following four categories: one is the country as a whole in this respect have economic interests; Secondly, the national security; The content of the three is a national political interests; Four is directly with the social moral, social stability there is a connection, such as banking, utilities, trade unions, free, small businesses, etc. To sum up, the antitrust laws immunity after the interests of the evaluation and the coordination between the equity and legal value goal, for more in need of legal protection of social public interests arises at the historic moment.
 
(2) the economic basis of anti-monopoly exemption: implement industrial policy
 
Anti-monopoly law is closely related to economic policy law field. It is the policy, is obvious. This means that the antitrust laws of immunity created must also be considered to industrial policy, specific target. Industrial policy is according to the requirements of the economic development of countries in different periods and the related industry's status and role of the specific target has the characteristics of periodic and variability, stability of law and anti-monopoly law pursues exist significant contradiction. Therefore, in order to timely unsettled target echo industrial policy, the law must take a series of non-discriminatory principle at odds to make room for industrial policy goals. On the one hand, with the exemption of antitrust legislation in the widespread is the national industrial policy targets reflected in the anti-monopoly law of institutional guarantee. Industrial structure policy to protect the industry can get the antitrust laws "extra" protection. Anti-monopoly law, on the other hand, using its legislation content directly express industrial policy targets. Industrial policy is to the same country economic development level and the content of the national economic strategy, its general every 10 years or a shorter period of time will make a major adjustment. In order to achieve the new industrial policy, relevant law also tend to have fixed. As compared with before, the telecom industry is enjoying immunity as policy changes are negative.
 
(3) the legal basis for antitrust immunity: based on the national authorization
 
As I said, anti-monopoly law to realize industry such protection is the most important means for different industries provide a wide variety of exemption. The universality of the exemption has weakened the antitrust laws and predictability, caused the antitrust laws regulating regional segmentation for different industries. Therefore, the antitrust laws of industrial policy of the limits of tolerance. Often needs certain behavior exemption state authorized administrative and judicial.
 
In general, an enterprise based on the national authorization behavior of dominant market position at the same time, often also subsequently gained a dominant position within the meaning of anti-monopoly law, namely the national behavior exemption. For example, the method is based on "national behavior principle" with the federal and state of the different levels of exemption, some dominant market position of a state authorized to pay legal confirmation. In Europe, of course, such as refusing to "national exemption" of countries and regions, enterprise authorized by the state is still the anti-monopoly regulation object, cannot be engaged in prohibited by the anti-monopoly law of the monopoly. In the service market, the national authorization sexual market monopoly are reflected particularly hard to crack. Because in this area, not only have a lot of industry market is heavily regulated by the competent authority within countries, there is a wide range of national authorized to market monopoly or monopoly phenomenon, is also connected with the trade policy. Service market in a typical monopoly industries including bar, finance, insurance, etc., but these industries are with multilateral trade rules of services liberalization and gradual liberalization.
 
The mode of existence of antitrust immunity
 
(1) type immunity
 
So-called type immunity, that is, directly give some restrict competition agreement of anti-monopoly legislation in the practice of legal status because of the type of immunity is often used in the implementation of the statutory requirement that automatically made way, therefore, the workload for easing the antitrust authority, reduce the enterprise from the administrative burden, improve efficiency has a significant effect on the implementation of anti-monopoly law. Such as the type of the eu special regulations in the form of a waiver is set, the exclusive sales, exclusive purchase four class types, selective sales and franchise exemptions for respective special immunity regulation. In general, as long as meet the requirements of anti-monopoly law more be typed at a specific form, can obtain exemption. But, after the formal requirements are, type of immunity is often considered the current situation of the development of domestic economy and the interests of the state policy. For example, the ec treaty, says that agricultural policy prior to the competition policy. So, in accordance with the eec agricultural policy agriculture cartel nature could have banned from restrictions on competition are excluded out of agreement. To the legislation of the most typical type waiver form is in the right be explicitly stipulated in the national anti-monopoly law directly. In Germany, Japan, Britain, the European Union, the Netherlands and other countries exist types in the system of anti-monopoly law exemption system. For our country, the type of antitrust law exemption mainly concentrated in electric power, railway, aviation and other utilities, intellectual property and state monopoly of the field. But with the refinement of the anti-monopoly law and anti-monopoly law implementing agencies accumulate experience, and the ability to ascend, type the scope of exemption is shrinking with the revision of national legislation, and antitrust law implementing agencies shall be strict interpretation. Existing exemption cases are the major types of exemption.
 

本文标签: 反垄断法豁免权antitrust

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