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摘要:本文是一篇墨尔本课程作业assignment。文章主要探讨了美国黑人英语与美国标准英语之间的共同之处和差异以及黑人英......

美国黑人英语(African-American English)主要是美国黑人使用的英语,与标准美国英语相比, 它在语言结构上有着许多共同之处, 但是在语音、语法方面又有着不少细微的差别。论文分析了美国黑人英语的起源与形成,并详尽地从语音,语法等方面分析了黑人英语的特征。就美国黑人英语的形成而言,本文将深入探讨勾勒出黑人英语的历史及其形成原因。早期的黑人英语主要有来自非洲的黑人奴隶所使用的非洲语言构成,而后俩随着黑人奴隶与白人奴隶主的交流,这种黑人语言逐渐融入了很多英语的成分,而正是在这一过程中黑人英语形成了自己的独特历史并发展成为一种特别的英语变体。
 

美国黑人英语在语音以及语法上和标准英语都存在许多差异,这些差异主要是由黑人文化以及美国黑人的生存环境导致的,这些反应在黑人英语与美国标准英语的差异则正反应了美国黑人的社会地位的不断改变及其黑人文化的发展。
 

Abstract摘要

Black American English (substitutes - American English) is mainly used black American English, compared with the standard American English, it has much in common in language structure, but in terms of phonetics, grammar and has a lot of nuances. Paper analyzes the origin and formation of black English, and in detail from the voice, analyzes the features of black English grammar, etc. In terms of the formation of American black English, this paper will explore the outline of the history and the reasons of black English. Early black English is mainly used by black slaves from Africa African language form, and then a pair with black slaves and exchange of white slave owners, this black language gradually into the composition of a lot of English, and it is in the process of black English formed its own unique history and become a special variety of English. 
 

American black English and standard English in pronunciation and grammar are many differences, these differences are mainly caused by living conditions of the black culture and black americans, these differences in black English and standard American English has positive reaction the changing of the American black social status and the development of black culture. 

 


Contents目录

 

Chapter One: Introduction........................................................................................ 7

 

1.1 What Is African-American English?.................................................................. 7

 

1.2 How did African-American English Come into Being?.................................... 8

 

1.3 What Are the Features of African-American English?..................................... 11

 

Chapter Two: The Analysis of the Formation of African-American English..... 15

 

2.1 The Origin of African-American English......................................................... 15

 

2.2 How Does the African-American English Come into Being? ............................

 

2.3 The Further Development of African-American English................................. 18

 

Chapter Three: The Main features of African-American English...................... 20

 

3.1 African-American English and Standard American English............................ 20

 

3.2 Differences between African-American English and General American English 26

 

3.2.1 Differences on Phonetics.............................................................................. 28

 

3.2.2 Differences on Grammar............................................................................... 31

 

Conclusion................................................................................................................. 39

 

Bibliography............................................................................................................... 44

 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction:引言

 

1.1 What Is African-American English?

 

The words “African -American English” were produced in 1969.African-American English usually refer to the English which is used in the northern American cities, and it is also known as Black Vernacular English, or Afro-American Vernacular English. African-American English is not a geographical concept nor is the concept of race. Most of the black people speak African -American English, however, most of those who are middle-class don’t. Except for 80 percent of African-Americans speak African-American English; there are also some white people, Puerto Ricans in New York City and some Indians speaking African-American English. Therefore, not all blacks speak African-American English. But the people who speak African-American English are majority blacks.

 

African-American English is a variant of English; it resulted from the African-American culture and came into being in the background of African-American community in the United States. There is little relationship between the African -American English and the geographic locations of the African –American. The Standard American English and African-American English have a lot in common .However, due to some social, economic, historical and geographical factors, African -American English also has some unique features which this paper will deal with in the coming chapters. During the past decades African -American English has gradually become a social dialect, for which the African -American have played a more and more important role in the American society.

 

African -American English develops from Creole language in West Africa, and it is neither like the language in the West Africa nor like the Standard English in America. African -American English is an independent system and has experienced a historical and dynamic process .The black slaves trade, the influence of the African -American’s mother tongue are all factors that had played great role in the development and formation of African -American English. African -American English is the product of social history and the American environment, and we should take a proper view on the African -American English.

 

1.2 How did African-American English come into being?

 

In the United States, most of the black people are transported from Africa as slaves. When the European people need to communicate with the Africans, they don’t have a common language, so a new language which acts as a tool to communicate between them slowly comes into being. And this language is simple and much easier than both English and the black people’s African mother tongues; it ensures the slaves to communicate with the White well. This language is just made up by very few words at first from both English and the African languages. People often call this primitive language Negron Pidgin.

 

What’s more, in the plantations in North America, the slaves have their own mother tongues, to communicate with each other they have to learn the language of Negron Pidgin so that they can understand each other. As a result, Negron Pidgin becomes a common language, and their descendants also speak the language, and the Negron Pidgin gradually becomes the black people’s own language. With the expansion of the residency of the colony in the North America, Negron Pidgin becomes the black people’s first language that is spoken in most occasions; at the same time, the voice, morphology, and syntax and vocabulary system gradually become very complicated.

 

Later, with the great development of society and economy, and the abolishment of slavery, the black communicate more and more with the white, therefore, the primitive language developed into nowadays African-American English.

 

1.3 What Are the Features of African-American English?

 

After several centuries’ evolution, though, it has taken a lot of changes, African-American English still remains its unique pronunciation and syntax features.

 

From the features of the African-American English ,we can find that the African-American English has absorbed some of the words in American’s daily life ,basic pronunciation and simple syntax of the standard English, it has also takes into some of the African languages features, so we may call the African-American English as a combination of the African languages and the standard English, it not only has the dominated features of English but also has the unique African cultural features and it has contributed greatly to the better communication between the slaves and their white owners. Generally speaking, African-American English is the English spoken by the black Americans with the features of the African languages; it reflects the African cultures and the African slave’s history in the land of North America.

 

This paper would deal with two main features of the African-American English which has large difference from the Standard English. First, we would talk about the differences of phonetics in the African-American English and later we will explore the differences of syntax in the African-American English.  

本文标签: 特征形成Formation美国黑人英语

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