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时间:2021-10-12 03:00 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本文是新西兰留学生的一篇assignment,主要讲了总共约5500亿的次级贷款虽然评级是优秀的,但是它造成了许多不良影响......

1. Introduction引言

在全球金融危机的影响和酝酿下,其影响在2007年中期到2008年才逐渐展现。美国信贷危机的根源是 - 在经济扩张的需求体质下,作为利润堆积起来的一种风险,投资者最终会发现很难找到产生大回报的投资,所以他们高风险的前景后,盲目的“送”钱。对于次级抵押贷款投资来说,体制下根本没有信用检查按揭贷款,首付,甚至连收入证明都不需要。

The global financial crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. The root of the American credit crisis is - as profits pile up during economic expansions, investors eventually find it difficult to find investments that generate large returns, so they send their money after riskier prospects. In the expansion that just ended, the most important of those questionable investments was subprime mortgages, culminating in mortgage loans that required minimal to nonexistent credit checks, down payments or even proof of income.

总共约5500亿的次级贷款(和一个单独的$7250亿的Alt-A级贷款 - 然后品质提升至次贷)在目前来说的评级是优秀的(Stratfore,2008)。但它造成了许多不良影响,比如一些最大和最古老的银行和一些投资公司和保险公司都已经宣布破产或不得不被政府拨款救助。该信贷流动冻结,贷款人的信心下降,世界各国的经济于是乎走向衰落。
In total, some $550 billion of subprime loans (and a separate $725 billion of Alt-A loans — the next quality step up from subprime) are currently outstanding (Stratfore, 2008). It caused many bad effects, such as some of the largest and most venerable banks, investment houses, and insurance companies have either declared bankruptcy or have had to be rescued financially. The credit flows froze, lender confidence dropped, and one after another the economies of countries around the world dipped toward recession. The crisis exposed fundamental weaknesses in financial systems worldwide, and despite coordinated easing of monetary policy by governments and trillions of dollars in intervention by governments and the International Monetary Fund, the crisis continues.

 

Firstly the financial crisis cause around the world stock markets have fallen, for example December 5, 2008, The Associated Press reported that stock purchased by the federal government as part of the bank bailout has lost nearly one‐third of its value in the last month. Under the plan, the government negotiated options to purchase up to 1.3 billion shares of common bank stock that was valued at $27 billion. Now, the value of that common stock is worth about $19 billion (The Mintel report, 2009).

 

Secondly financial crisis cause the unemployed rate was increased quickly, according to the U.S. Department of Labour, jobless claims actually declined by 14,000 for the week ending November 22. However, the four‐week moving average of claims rose to 518,000 from 507,000, which is the highest it has been since early 1983 and the U.S. Labor Department reports that the unemployment rate reached a 15‐year high in November. According to the report, 533,000 jobs were cut in November and the unemployment rate rose from 6.5% to 6.7%. As of November, 10.3 million people were unemployed, an increase of 2.7 million since December 2007. Employment rates declined in almost every industry, with most losses occurring in the professional and business services sectors. In contrast, the health care industry added 34,000 jobs in November 2008 (The Mintel report, 2009), and the high unemployed rate cause the decrease of the consumers spending, the U.S. Department of Commerce is reporting that consumer spending is down. In October, personal consumer spending dropped 1 percent compared to the previous month, the largest decline since September 2001. Orders for durable goods also declined for the third month in a row by a total of 6.2%. Excluding transit‐related durables, orders decreased 4.4%. Orders for commercial airlines were down 4.7 percent, while demand for automobiles decreased by 4.5% (The Mintel report, 2009).

 

Finally many large financial institutions have effect of the financial crisis, they have collapsed or been bought out such as Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. has filed for bankruptcy. On November 20, 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported that president‐elect Barack Obama has promised an increase in government intervention in the auto, energy and banking industries to support them tied over the financial crisis.

 

Therefore, under the pressure of the slow economic growth and inflation, governments in even the wealthiest nations have had to come up with rescue packages to bail out their financial systems. The US President George W. Bush asked Congress on September 20, 2008 for the authority to spend as much as $700 billion to purchase troubled mortgage assets and contain the financial crisis.

 

本文标签: 金融危机Financial creco cris

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