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摘要:本文在经济发展的基础上,提出并阐述了我国比较优势的内涵可以从资源、外部经济及竞争优势三个层次予以拓展。......

The traditional theory of comparative advantage Review
对传统比较优势理论的回顾

British classical economist Adam Smith in his masterpiece "The Wealth of Nations" and to clarify the famous "invisible hand" mechanism, he believes in a market economy, driven by the interests, for their own subjective microeconomic body may through the division of labor and trade and the objective for social work, in order to achieve self-interest and mutual benefit, individual and community interests of each other. Therefore, the relationship between the interests of economic agents do not like the mercantilists claimed as certain non-win-lose, but is likely to achieve "win-win". Economic entities "selfish" should not be achieved through the loss of people go, but should be achieved through altruism. Specific ways for the various social economic entities division of labor according to their expertise, conduct specialized production, and through market transactions, resulting in the overall achievement of social welfare maximization. Obviously, once beyond the national scope of trading activity, the international division of labor and international trade has emerged. This theory is known as Smith's theory of absolute advantage. This theory solves the important international trade motivation, but can not answer a question, that is, if a country on any commodity production are no absolute advantage, then this country can not participate in the international division of labor? Another British classic economist David Ricardo's comparative cost (comparative advantage) theory to solve this problem. He believes that, regardless of a country's economy is in what state, economic forces are strong or weak, the technical level is high or low, can determine their respective comparative advantages, even if the overall disadvantage, can also be found from a number of disadvantages relative advantage . The key is to compare the comparative cost.
 英国古典经济学家亚当·斯密在其代表作《国富论》中阐明了著名的“看不见之手”机制,他认为在市场经济中,在利益驱动下,主观上为自己的微观经济主体可通过分工和交易而客观上为社会工作,从而实现自利与互利、个体利益与社会利益的相互联系。故经济主体之间的利益关系并不像重商主义者声称的那样,一定是非赢即输的,而是可能实现“双赢”的。经济主体的“利己”不应通过损人去实现,而应通过利他来实现。具体途径为,社会各经济主体按自己的特长实行分工,进行专业化生产,然后通过市场进行交易,从而在总体上实现社会福利最大化。显然,交易活动一旦越出本国范围,国际分工和国际贸易就出现了。斯密的这一理论被称为绝对优势理论。这一理论虽然解决了国际贸易产生的重要动因,但却无法回答一个问题,即如果一个国家在任何商品生产上都没有绝对优势,那么这个国家还能不能参加上述国际分工?另一位英国古典经济学家大卫·李嘉图的比较成本(相对优势)理论解决了这个问题。他认为,不论一个国家的经济处于怎样的状态,经济力量是强是弱,技术水平是高是低,都能确定各自的相对优势,即使总体上处于劣势,也可从诸多劣势中找到相对优势。比较成本的关键在于比较。


Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage answered Smith absolute advantage theory can not answer the question, but in the end is what causes the countries in the production of different products on the comparative cost difference? Swedish economists Heckscher and Ohlin factor endowments theory (abbreviated H-O theory) has given this explanation. The theory is that the same kinds of goods in different countries of the production function under the same conditions, the root cause of comparative advantage lies in countries or regions relative endowments of factors of production are different, and the different elements used in the production of goods intensive style differences. Therefore, countries should use their own production of export-intensive relative abundance of those elements of the product, while imports relative scarcity of those elements of the intensive use their products. This logic is assumed to be established on the premise of factors of production between countries production efficiency units are the same, namely national production function is the same. Unlike this, Ricardo's theory is that national comparative cost differences by national factors of production caused by differences in production efficiency, but also the production function that countries are different, and different kind of period of time remains unchanged. In Smith and Ricardo's trade theory, labor is the only factor of production, production technology is given exogenous variables, constant returns to scale production, market structure is perfectly competitive. As part of the system of classical economic theory, the two theories are called "classical trade theory." In the H-O theory, labor is no longer the sole input, but production remained constant returns to scale, is still perfectly competitive market structure. H-O theory is called the "neoclassical trade theory."
 李嘉图的相对优势理论回答了斯密绝对优势理论无法回答的问题,但到底是什么原因造成了各国在生产不同产品上的比较成本差别呢?瑞典经济学家赫克歇尔和俄林的要素禀赋理论(简称H—O理论)对此作出了解释。该理论认为,在不同国家同种商品之生产函数相同的条件下,比较优势产生的根源在于各国或区域生产要素相对禀赋的不同,以及不同商品生产在要素使用密集型式上的差别。因此,各国应当生产出口那些密集使用本国相对充裕要素的产品,而进口那些密集使用本国相对稀缺要素的产品。这一逻辑得以成立的前提假定是各国之间单位生产要素的生产效率都是相同的,即各国的生产函数都是相同的。与此不同,李嘉图的理论则认为各国比较成本的差异是由各国生产要素的生产效率之差别造成的,也即各国的生产函数是不同的,而且一定时期内这类不同性保持不变。在斯密和李嘉图的贸易理论中,劳动是唯一的生产要素,生产技术是给定的外生变量,生产规模报酬不变,市场结构为完全竞争。作为古典经济学理论体系的一部分,这两个理论被称为“古典贸易理论”。在H—O理论中,劳动不再是唯一的投入,但生产规模报酬仍然不变,市场结构仍为完全竞争。H—O理论被称为“新古典贸易理论”。


Whether it is "classical", or "neo-classical" trade theory (we may collectively referred to these two traditional trade theory), emphasizes comparative advantage structures are built on a country estate on the basis of comparative advantage The. Is often the case in developing countries lack capital and technology, and there are abundant natural resources and cheap labor resources advantage. Developed countries have the capital and technology advantages. Therefore, the comparative advantage of the general performance of the pattern of trade: imports of developed countries, labor-intensive or natural resource-intensive products, the export of capital or technology-intensive products. Developing countries which import and export the former. It should be said that the above theories to explain the reality of some of the trade pattern is quite successful and has had quite a long time in the international division of labor and constitute the mainstream trade theory, but they will eventually have their limitations.

Whether it is based on the difference in labor productivity theory of comparative advantage, or to the supply of factors of production-based resource endowment theory, its comparative advantage on the premise that all countries produce the supply, production conditions can not be changed, resources and factors of production can not be in the international flow This traditional comparative advantage with static characteristics. But in today's economy under the conditions of globalization, factors of production, resources can be internationally mobile; natural resources could be improved through technological advances, synthetic or replaced by new materials, human resources and human capital investment through to the "quality" on the edge to make up the "quantity" of the disadvantages. This indicates that the majority of developing countries have static comparative advantage in international competition is not necessarily a dynamic competitive advantage.

The formation of new trade theory and disadvantages

As traditional trade theory based on "constant returns to scale of production" and "perfect competition" as the basic assumptions, it is difficult to explain the emergence of World War II to 1975 the number of new phenomenon: international trade, monopolistic competition, new technologies, protectionism within the industry trade. In fact, these phenomena can use the "economies of scale", "product differentiation", "imperfect competition" to be summarized.

Swedish economist Lindell proposed in 1962, even if the factor endowments between different geographical conditions and the production function is no different, but because of inter-regional differences in demand preferences can lead to mutually beneficial trade. He noted that many countries tend to be kind to each other export the same, but different brands of products. They are obtained from international trade in most cases the performance benefits for the consumer to buy a desired because a particular brand of industrial and won the utility. Therefore, intra-industry trade can be explained. In this type of trade, product differentiation has an important role. The so-called product differentiation refers to similar products or services, vendors through quality, functionality, style, brand, advertising, service and other aspects of the efforts to make their own business has some kind of specialty. It is not perfectly competitive, monopolistic competition, especially linked. In monopolistic competition market, the similarities between the products make them the possibility of substitution increases, resulting in competition; while the differential between the products have resulted in a certain degree of monopoly. The higher the degree of product differentiation, product substitutability smaller the price elasticity of demand for the product is lower, the result is that manufacturers can control to some extent, the price of their products. And this is the assumption of perfect competition traditional trade theory can not explain. For the deficiencies of traditional trade theory, imperfect competition to the assumption of new trade theory emerged. In addition to product differentiation outside, the theory is the most important one is the central concept of economies of scale. Refers enterprise under conditions of imperfect competition in international trade due to expansion of the market so that the resulting long-term average costs decline as production increases. Compared with the traditional trade theory, extensive use of new trade theory of industrial organization, market structure, imperfect competition, economies of scale, product differentiation and other new concepts and ideas to construct a theoretical model of the theory of international trade has made new significant progress. However, until the early 1980s, based on economies of scale based on the new trade theory is still not compatible with the traditional comparative advantage, so the ability to trade still does not explain the reality of generalization. In 1985, Helpman and Krugman's "Market Structure and Foreign Trade," a book published, marking the new trade theory mature. The book combines a variety of new trade theory, proposes a systematic analytical framework, thus bringing new trade theory raised to the height of the basic theory to further enhance the applicability. The book made a business model not only importing economies of scale, product differentiation factors, in line with the conditions of monopolistic competition hypothesis, but also compatible with the traditional comparative advantage, so that the new trade theory more general, explaining stronger. The model suggests that, first, the inter-industry trade is based on comparative advantage and factor endowments based on the abundant labor resources countries have become net exporters of labor-intensive products and capital, a net importer of technology-intensive products, from the decisive role of the main factors is still comparative advantage. Second, intra-industry trade is built on economies of scale and product differentiation on the basis that even countries with the same level of technology and the same capital - labor ratio, the two countries will continue to produce the same vendor heterogeneous industrial products, consumer differences on foreign demand for manufactured goods will lead to intra-industry trade. Since the pursuit of economies of scale, trading parties generally produce only a limited range of products, and then through intra-industry trade to enhance mutual social welfare. Third, the comparative advantage based inter-industry trade and economies of scale, product differentiation based on intra-industry trade is symbiotic coexistence.  

本文标签: 相对优势理论世界经济体系

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