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摘要:这篇文章主要论述了如何实现减排措施,首先介绍了航运减排措施实施的原因,其次详细阐述了具体的操作措施,并......

How to implement abatement measures
如何实现减排措施


1. Introduction
介绍


Implementing policy instruments to limit GHG emissions from international shipping industry should contribute to global, cost-effective emission reductions. Thus, abatement measures in the shipping industry should only be implemented if the marginal costs are equal to or lower than the marginal abatement costs in other sectors.
实施政策工具,以限制从国际航运业的温室气体排放量应全球性的,具有成本效益的减排,因此,航运业的减排措施应只可实施的边际成本等于或低于其他部门的边际减排成本。


It is likely that the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol is dependent of the establishing of the flexible mechanisms international emissions trading, JI and CDM. Therefore, there will be an international market for emission allowances and credits, and the price in this market will form the upper limit of what abatement measures that will be cost effective to implement, also in the shipping industry. Therefore, the abatement measure implementation towards international shipping should aim at such cost-effective measures.
因此,对国际航运的减排措施的实施应着眼于这样的成本效益的措施。


When using a bunker fuel charge, a charge equal to the international emission allowance/credit price will automatically ensure global cost effectiveness. Ship owners will implement measures with a marginal cost lower than the current charge. Also emissions trading will ensure cost effective emission reductions from ships. The ship owners will face the international allowance/credit price, which will determine the level of actions they will take to reduce emissions. When technical standards are used as the policy instrument, careful calculations of costs for the different abatement measures will have to be done before the standards are fixed, to ensure the same marginal abatement cost level in the shipping industry as in other sectors.
当使用船用燃油费,一次充电等于国际排放津贴/信贷价格将自动确保全球的成本效益。船主将采取措施,与边际成本低于现行收费。排放权交易也将确保船舶成本效益的减排。


It is very difficult to predict what the price level in the future emission allowance/credit market will be. A survey of different studies of abatement costs in some key countries and possible prices in future international emission trading markets presented in ECON, 1998, indicate price levels from slightly above zero to almost USD 40/tonne CO2. However, most of the estimates are in the range of USD 5 to USD 13/tonne CO 2. This could form a very uncertain indication of what abatement measures in the shipping industry that would be cost effective to implement.
然而,大多数的估计是5美元到13美元每tonne,CO2。这可能会形成不确定的减排措施的航运业,成本效益将实现一个非常不确定的迹象。


2. Operational measures
操作措施


These are measures that can be implemented during the operation of ships to reduce GHG emissions. The discussion in chapter 5 shows that operational measures include the following activities:
在这些船舶的操作过程中,可以实现减少温室气体排放的措施。第5章的讨论表明,经营措施包括下列活动:


•  Operation plannning/speed selection: reduced speed/slow steaming may reduce emissions up to 40%.
•  Weather routing: 2-4% emissions reduction could be possible
•  Optimising operating parameters: include measures like steady power (minimum RPM variations), optimal trim and propeller pitch, minimum ballast, and optimal rudder. 1-5% emissions reduction is possible.
•  Reduced time in port: comprises more efficient cargo handling and more efficient anchoring. 1-7% emission reduction could be obtained.


It can be seen from the list that operational planning/reduced speed (see also conclusions from
Chapter 6) and reduced time in port are the measures with the greatest reduction potential.
A bunker fuel charge and emissions trading based on emissions allowances will give incentives to implement all the operational measures mentioned above. What measures the ship owner may choose to implement, will depend on the level of the fuel charge compared to the marginal costs. Those measures with marginal costs lower than the charge will be implemented, others not.
从列表中可以看出,业务规划/减少的速度(见第6章中也结论)和减少在港时间以最大的还原电位的措施。


An important question is whether a bunker charge will result in reduced speed. During the early
1980s, reduced speed is reported to have been common, resulting in energy intensity reductions by 10-20% [OECD, 1997]. This practice was motivated partly by high oil prices and partly by over-capacity in the industry. Melissen et. al. 1993 analyses the economics of specific voyages for different types of bulk carrier (a 4,700 nautical mile voyage for an iron ore carrier and a 11,000 nautical mile voyage for an oil tanker). The possible effects on costs of a hypothetical fuel price increase from USD 85/tonne to USD 170/tonne are evaluated. This shows for these voyages that while the overall costs for older oil tankers are 35% lower than the costs for new vessels with a fuel price at USD 85/tonne, the gap is reduced to about 20% when the fuel price is doubled. The fuel price increase results in 30% lower optimum (minimum cost    ) operating speed for older vessels, newer vessels minimise their overall costs by operating at maximum speed even at the higher fuel price.
一个重要的问题是燃油附加费是否会导致速度降低。在20世纪80年代初,减少的速度报道已经屡见不鲜,从而降低能源强度10-20%。

本文标签: 减排措施abatement me操作措施

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