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时间:2021-10-27 02:00 来源: Essay代写

摘要:温室气体的排放造成的影响Greenhouse gas emissions caused by the impact 宿命论者:反对监管环境 Fatalists: Against regulatory environ......

温室气体的排放造成的影响Greenhouse gas emissions caused by the impact

宿命论者:反对监管环境

Fatalists: Against regulatory environment

对于宿命论者来说,他们认为任何干预减少温室气体排放的过程都会减少经济的发展和就业的机会,所以他们被称之为经济理性主义者,他们积极的对市场进行干预,企图降低有害气体的排放.
Fatalists believe that any form of intervention to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will impact economic growth and cost jobs. The fatalists could also be called economic rationalists who believe any form of market interventions to encourage lower greenhouse gas emissions will be deleterious to the economy. While this group agrees climate change exists they believe interventions like the proposed emission trading scheme will place too high a financial burden on industry, especially given the current global economic climate and cheap imports due to favourable exchange rates challenging Australia’s competitive industries.

拥护这种思想言论的人当属前联邦反对党成员和澳大利亚自由党成员.他们在接受ABC电视台的采访的时候,联邦反对党的发言人格雷格就说,联军仍然决定废除政府社会和行业的不利影响的立法,对于气体的排放不做任何的限定。
The most stanch advocates of this discourse are members of the current Federal opposition, the Australian Liberal Party. In an interview with ABC Radio Federal opposition climate spokesman Greg Hunt said the Coalition remained determined to repeal the legislation if it won government because of its adverse impact on the community and industry, without doing anything to address emissions. He stated, "there would be an overwhelming mood in the community to repeal the tax".
The opposition and some business groups say the $23-a-tonne price to be imposed on about 500 businesses - the nation's biggest polluters - from July 2012 is much higher than international prices and will disadvantage Australian industry (AAP & Arup 2011). Business groups including the Australian Industry Group and the Business Council of Australia are also weary of the financial ramifications to industries and businesses from a carbon tax.
 In a media release following the UN Durban meeting last year the Australian Industry Group’s chief Heather said that the Australian economy remains "starkly exposed" under the carbon tax and that Australia remains vulnerable in a number of respects:
 The prices in the initial three-year fixed price period remain around double currently anticipated global prices;
 The absence of a firm strategy to clean out the plethora of existing state, territory and federal regulatory measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions implies a double carbon tax burden for Australian business (Ai Group 2011).
 技术
Technologists
技术专家相信引入干预政策和以运用激励措施的形式,可以鼓励工业和商业推动绿色经济的发展。
Technologists believe introducing forms of intervention and incentives to encourage industries and business will drive a green economy. This viewpoint is closely aligned to a ecologist modernization perspective (Mol 2000; Mol & Sonnenfeld 2000). Proponents of this school of thought argue that there are economic benefits to be derived from moving towards more environmentally attuned business practices. The Federal Government is the major exponent of this perspective characterised by the package of industry and business incentives accompanying the launch of the ETS to transition Australia towards a green economy.
Technologists clearly view the forthcoming carbon tax as a source of growth for industry and employment. The potential for growth in green jobs also offers significant opportunities for the Australian economy. Ms Kearney, president of the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) said clean energy technology was projected to be one of the world’s largest industries by 2020, totaling as much as $US2.3 trillion. Modelling by the ACTU and the Australian Conservation Foundation had identified about 770,000 green jobs that could be created across the Australian economy by 2030. More than 400,000 people are expected to be employed in the sector by 2020 (Twomey 2011a). Ms Kearney said:
These are big numbers and big opportunities, but if we don’t take strong action on climate change and invest now, the economic opportunities will pass us by (Twomey 2011a).
Accompanying the forthcoming carbon tax the Government will allocate around 40 per cent of carbon price revenue to help businesses and support jobs to assist Australia’s transition to a clean energy future. A Jobs and Competitiveness Program will provide $9.2 billion of assistance over the first three years of the carbon pricing mechanism to safeguard jobs in industries which face international competition and produce a lot of pollution. Manufacturing industry will be assisted by tailored programs worth $500 million for steel manufacturers, food processors and metal foundries and forgers. An $800 million grants program will help manufacturers invest in low pollution technologies. A Coal Sector Jobs Package will provide $1.3 billion in assistance to support coal mining jobs. These programs will support jobs and keep Australian industry strong while creating incentives to invest in clean energy and energy efficiency.  Customised incentives are also planned for small business which comprises about 96 per cent of all businesses and represents about 35 per cent of industry value added and provides 47 per cent of the nation’s jobs. Schemes aimed at supporting their needs include increasing the small business instant asset write-off threshold to $6,500 to free up cash flow and help small business owners invest in new assets, including those that improve energy efficiency. For businesses with an aggregated turnover of less than $2 million a year, the small business instant asset write-off threshold will be increased from $5,000 to $6,500 for depreciable assets from the 2012-13 income year. 

A recent Australian CSIRO study with a wide group of collaborators has established a roadmap for sustainable aviation fuel. Currently the aviation industry accounts for two per cent of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions and the industry currently relies on fossil fuels. Sustainable jet fuels derived from biomass (plants, trees, algae, waste and other organic matter bio-oils) offer the largest single opportunity to reduce emissions while ensuring long term fuel security for the sector.
The Flight Path to Sustainable Aviation report, predicts a new Australian and New Zealand bio-derived jet fuel industry that over the next 20 years could:
generate more than 12 000 jobs
reduce Australia’s reliance on fuel imports by A$2 billion per annum
 greenhouse gas emissions by 17 per cent in the aviation sector (CSIRO 2011).

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