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摘要:摘要:本文主要讲述了人力资源管理中绩效管理的重要性地位。然后从四个步骤,包括规划、实施、评价和反馈,它将引......

摘要:本文主要讲述了人力资源管理中绩效管理的重要性地位。然后从四个步骤,包括规划、实施、评价和反馈,它将引入绩效管理过程。

人力资源管理中绩效管理的影响
The Effect Of Performance Management In Hr Business Essay


绩效的概念已经存在了一百多年,经历一些显著的绩效发展的过程和随后的变化融入人力资源管理系统。绩效管理,作为这些发展过程中最重要的部分之一,已在许多组织中引起了激烈的关注。此外,经济全球化,科技的迅速发展和高资本在这个快节奏的社会中有明显的趋势,人们必须促进他们的表现,变得更加灵活以满足这个瞬息万变、竞争激烈社会的需要。因此,如何选择员工,他被认为是组织中的最大资产,在避免公司落后于竞争对手中扮演着主导的角色。同时如何保持人才以及如何鼓励使他们发挥出最大能力来提高公司的竞争力,对经理来说是至关重要的问题。有效使用绩效管理可以帮助该公司解决这些问题。

在这篇文章中,对绩效和绩效管理的清晰定义,将首先分析许多学者提出不同的解释。然后从四个步骤,包括规划、实施、评价和反馈,它将引入绩效管理过程。最后,本文将试图证明绩效管理的积极作用比消极更重要。

对概念的定义

A.什么是绩效?

绩效管理很显然与绩效相关联,以及这个词的含义是什么?有两种不同意见来定义绩效。其中之一是活动的产出和结果,Bernadinetal(1995年,引用了2000年阿姆斯特朗:3)指出,“绩效应该定义为结果的工作,因为他们提供最强的联系来组织的战略目标,客户满意度、经济贡献”。

The concept of performance has been around for more than a hundred years, experiencing some remarkable changes in the process of performance developments and subsequently integrating into the Human Resources Management system. Performance management, as one of the most important parts in these development procedures, has attracted intensifying attention in many organizations. In addition, economical globalization, speedy development of technology and high capitalizations are conspicuous trends in this fast-paced society, people have to promote their performance and become more flexible to satisfy the needs of this fast-changing and competitive society. Hence, how to select employees, who are regarded as an organization's greatest assets, plays a dominant role in avoiding companies to fall behind their competitors. Simultaneously how to keep the talent and how to encourage them to give their maximum ability to improve the competitiveness of company are crucial issues to managers. Efficient use of performance management can help the company to solve such problems.

In this essay, a clear definition of performance and performance management will be given firstly by the analysis of different interpretations put forward by many scholars. Then from four steps, including planning, implementation, appraisal and feedback, it will introduce performance management process. Finally, this essay will attempt to demonstrate that the positive effects of performance management are more significant than the negative.

对概念的定义——Defining the concepts

A.什么是绩效?——A. What is performance?

Performance management is obviously to do with performance, and what is meant by that word? There are two dissimilar views on the definition of performance. One is the outputs and outcomes of activities, Bernadin et al (1995, cited in Armstrong 2000: 3) states that "performance should be defined as outcomes of work because they provide the strongest linkage to the strategic goals of the organization, customer satisfaction, and economic contributions". An alternative view contends that performance is behaviour, including working proficiency, literacy and efforts. Campell (1900, cited in Armstrong 2000: 3) believes that "performance is behaviour and should be distinguished from outcomes because they can be contaminated by systems factors".

Actually, in the practice of performance management in HR, managers usually intend to use a more comprehensive view of performance, which includes outputs and behaviour, because they have a mutual relationship of complementation, the behaviour is deemed to be one of the indispensable conditions to reach outcomes or outputs of performance. This view is concluded by Brumbrach (1988, cited in Armstrong 2000: 3) that performance is composed of behaviour and outcomes or outputs. Performer tries his or her best to turn abstract plans or behaviour into some concrete outcomes. In other words, behaviour is an instrument for gaining results.

To summarize, an overall definition of performance should consist of behaviour and results, and these two elements need to be taken into account when measuring the performance of individuals and teams.

B.绩效管理——B. Performance management

Performance management is an essential part in HRM, which has become increasingly popular since the 1980s. Dransfield (2000: 69) states that "performance management is a process which is designed to improve organizational, team and individual performance and which is owned and driven by line managers".

According to Dransfield's (2000) definition, currently, there are three different viewpoints on the definition of performance management. The first one is to be understood as organizational performance. It means that the implementation of organization strategies should emphasize on the adjustment of organizational structure, business process, technology and targets. The second viewpoint is that performance management is a means of getting better results from teams. Performance management applies to everyone in the business team, not just managers, but also employees. As stated by Armstrong (2000:5), "It rejects the cultural assumption that only managers are responsible for the performance of their teams and replaces it with the belief that responsibility is shared between managers and team members". The third one claims that the core of performance management is developing individual's potential, and after that improving organizational performance through aligning individual and organizational targets.

This essay is in favour of the third opinion, mainly because the inconsistent or missing information of target content is inevitable during the "top-down" transmission from organizational targets to individual targets. In order to make sure the staffs' activities and outputs are congruent with organizational targets, it is widely believed that performance management should be focused on guiding and helping staffs to fulfil their tasks in the light of organizational target and requirement.

绩效管理的过程——The process of performance management

In order to ensure the targets can be accomplished effectively and punctually, managers should follow a performance management process in an orderly way. An all-around definition is provided to reflect the performance management process, as 'a management cycle under which program performance objectives and targets are determined, managers have flexibility to achieve them, actual performance is measured , and this information feeds into decisions about programme funding, design, operations and rewards or penalties'(Curristine, 2005: 131). This section will introduce the standard Deming cycle applied in the performance management context and the Deming cycle refers to PDCA where P for plan ,D for do, C for check and A for action. During "plan" phase the goals and information are decided for employee or team. The "do" phase is for the implementation of plan and in "check" phase, supervisors will review and appraise the performance, then confirm the performance and gives feedback in the stage of "action"(Evans & Lindsay, 2008).

A.绩效计划——A. Performance planning

Performance planning is the starting point of performance management process, including three basic aspects-"setting the direction, concluding performance agreements and agreeing personal development plans"(Armstrong 2000:17-18). In other words, performance planning is deemed to be an activity of deciding what to do and how to do it. Compared to the other types of planning in traditional process and management activities, performance planning has the following characteristics:

(1). The process of performance planning is a bidirectional communication between managers and employees.

(2). All members, including managers and employees should be responsible for drawing up plans together.

B.性能的实现——B. performance implementation

Performance implementation is one of the most fundamental parts throughout the performance management. Undoubtedly, without this basic guarantee of performance implementation, plans cannot be put into practice. In essence, performance implementation is a process of delivering organizational targets or plans from managers to employees, and then people have flexibility to achieve them.

C.绩效评估——C. Performance appraisal

Performance appraisal is the focal part of performance management in which managers give assessment to individual's work and achievements in relation to the organizational targets. A useful definition of performance appraisal is set out by the Adivory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) which states that: 'appraisals regularly record an assessment of an employee's performance, potential and development needs. The appraisal is an opportunity to take an overall view of work content, loads and volume, to look back on what has been achieved during the reporting period and agree objectives for the next'(cited in Dransfield, 2000: 71). Generally speaking, the main task of performance appraisal is to identify what the employee is to do and has it been done well. Hence, it is necessary to establish a standard for performance appraisal. If an employee's behaviour can be in accordance with the following criteria, it is deemed that this is an effective performance: 1. Strategic Congruence, 2. Validity, 3. Reliability, 4. Acceptability, 5. Specificity (Baker, 1988).

D.绩效反馈——D. Performance feedback

After being checked, individuals need to know whether their performance is good or not. So managers should provide feedback which needs to be concerned with actual performance and careful measurement. The good feedback is not simply warning employees what they have done wrong or successful, but also guiding a way for individual's future development and improvement. This feedback information is also the evidence that human resources strategy and feedback improve leadership capability and consequently affect organizational performance (Mabey & Martin, 2001). In the practise of feedback, there are a number of methods to give feedbacks; one of the most famous systems is 360-degree feedback, which refers to a process in which employees receive confidential, anonymous feedback from the people who work around them, including managers, peers, subordinates and customers (Tyson & Ward, 2004). To sum up, performance feedback can be collected from abundant information channels, ranging from superiors to subordinates, colleagues to customers, and thereafter this feedback information will flow into decision about strategic adjustment, modification, rethinking operation and rewards or penalties.

绩效管理影响人力资源管理的发展——Performance management influences the development of HRM

With the wide dissemination of performance concept, performance management has attracted intensifying attention in many organizations. Managers have placed a premium on the employees' performance in their work. So the adoption of performance management not only can improve organizational performance, but also can be personally fulfilling and skill-enhancing. However, there are still some potential problems existing in performance management, which seems to undermine the organizational and individual development. This section will attempt to demonstrate that the functional effects of performance management are more significant than the dysfunctional.

A comprehensive definition is provided to point out the functional effects, as "In general term, we define a phenomenon as being functional if its consequences contribute positively to a larger structure" (Van Dooren, 2010: 152). Performance management thus would have functional effects when it contributes to the whole target of organization. Firstly, performance management can stimulate learning and innovation among employees and inside the organization. In terms of employees, performance management provides a motivation for encouraging employees to improve their own skills, especially those who perform poorly; they are guided to meditate deeply on their working practice, the defects in particular, which is the pivotal to the improvement of their performance. So only keep learning, can employees ensure that they can hold the job position and follow the best career path for themselves. In terms of the whole organization, performance management may trigger changes and innovation. According to De Brujin (2004), it is obvious that the yearly growth in the number of employees is steady in a company, this means that the organization accumulate slack resources who do not make any contribution to organization. The managers in department of HR can therefore adjust and improve the standard of choosing and employing persons, and cut off the overstaffed offices. Moreover, performance management can create transparency in the organization. Managers or supervisors, who are used to having a lot of priority, may commit mistakes, such as judgement errors and bias. Performance management can make their performance more visible inside or outside the organizations. It is an effective way to supervise and keep managers from giving others unfair treatment.

Despite the functional effects that performance management has, it is impossible to deny its dysfunctional effects, which can undermine the goals of the individuals and organizations. Deming (cited in Evans & Lindsay, 2008) holds the view that performance management nourishes short-term performance at the cost of the long-term planning. In order to realize the short-term interests and personal achievement, employees may make a flimsy promises to their customers and overdraw organizational resources, at last, the development of the whole organization will be blocked. What is more, the negative effects of performance management can be often caused by distortion of performance information and outputs.

In conclusion, despite the existence of drawbacks, the positive effects of performance management are more significant than the negative. Performance management is thus an evolutionary process in which individuals can obtain many opportunities for career development, such as receiving training and guiding, improving the development of capabilities, even attainment of full potential. Simultaneously, organizations can get generous profits in return from their professional performance management. It is likely that performance management will have a bright future in the department of HR.

结论——Conclusion

As mentioned above, this essay has discussed definitions, process and effects of performance management. It has emerged that the functional effects of performance management are more significant, despite the existence of dysfunctional effects as well. According to Hatry (2008, cited in Van Dooren 2010), performance management may not have a bright future, because some challenges remain to a certain degree and its problems are so thorny that can hinder the development of organizations. Nevertheless, now there are increasingly managers using performance management, as stated by Van Dooren (2010:175), "practitioners, management consultants as well as academics have sought solutions in response to the paradoxical and often problematic nature of performance management". Accordingly, the foreground of performance management is still optimistic. An efficient way to solve these problems is to improve the quality of performance information, which can guarantee the reliability and equality of performance appraisal and feedback. From the aspect of employees, adequate training and skills development should be applied in the performance management. In a word, performance management is an indispensable part in the department of HR and it is to be hoped that improvements and adjustments should be taken to deal with challenges and ensure to gain the greatest returns on professional performance management.

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疾病影响窦房结导致明显的心动过缓伴有头晕和晕厥(病窦综合征)。在美国每年有超过850000人住院治疗心律失常。......

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[海外essay写作人才]传统媒...... 2021-04-13

随着互联网的迅猛发展,传统媒体在这个信息的自我中得到了很大的打击,使其在流通领域和广告赞助商中的减少。......

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[英国essay重复率50%]沟通障...... 2021-04-13

这篇文章已实施三种情况确定不同类型的组织各种沟通障碍,提出了相应的解决方案来解决的障碍,实现有效沟通的......

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[essay prompt]研究跨文化管理...... 2021-04-13

这份报告给出了一个深刻的了解跨文化管理。这份报告的目的是让一个详细研究跨文化理解的需要和文化差异的问题......

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[熊猫人代写essay]自主学习...... 2021-04-13

为了提高我校考试语法错误,我开始学习。在自主学习过程中我得到了很多的问题,如常见的介词错误和许多其他问......

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[英文essay查重]旅游类型和...... 2021-04-13

摘要:本文主要讲述了旅游的种类和它的重要性。据世界旅游组织(WTO),旅游是目前世界上最大的产业。......

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[1000字essay范文]艺术的魅力...... 2021-04-13

摘要:本文主要讲述了艺术参数同行和社会对他们的期待。作者介绍了对艺术魅力的理解和诠释。......

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[十大essay代写服务机构]公...... 2021-04-13

本文讲述了公司的忠诚度计划,先通过一些折扣赢得顾客的好感,通过这一批顾客对外宣传,树立公司的良好口碑,......

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[优秀essay范文140词]机器人...... 2021-04-11

机器人在未来的应用将被讨论。在这份报告中,他们的一些建议将被总结。......

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[加拿大大学网申essay]过去...... 2021-04-11

摘要:本文主要讲述了蒙古国的法律框架体系,蒙古国是第一个在中国的统治下的国家,直到1921年他们才有了国家独立......

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[essay 1000字模板]审计委员...... 2021-04-11

本文的研究审计委员会运作在巴林的相关审计。审计委员会在公司治理方面是一个有效而强大的工具。......

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[国外essay案例分析步骤]股...... 2021-04-11

摘要:本文主要讲述了公司中普通股可以接收任何数量的股息,基于公司的利润水平。在正常情况下,所有股息都应征......

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[怎么修改essay]信号衰减模...... 2021-04-11

随着植被衰减越来越严重,信号衰减模型是用来描述和量化不同植被密度,可以提高测量的准确性。......

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[外交学院英语政论essay]新...... 2021-04-11

世界经济秩序的快速转变和人们普遍看法认为,某些结构和不可逆转的变化正在进行中,有可能对新秩序的形状进行......

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[雪城video essay]创造识别和...... 2021-04-11

本文首先对厄休拉·勒奎恩以前的书和论文进行审查。鉴定和性别的演变,她认为挡泥板识别被表述行动,一个持续的......

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