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摘要:1.0 Introduction 介绍 随着企业全球化的推进,跨文化管理逐渐受到企业的重视(Bird和Mendenhall,2016)。跨文化管理是指......

1.0 Introduction 介绍 随着企业全球化的推进,跨文化管理逐渐受到企业的重视(Bird和Mendenhall,2016)。跨文化管理是指在全球运营中,管理者在跨文化条件下克服异质文化的冲突,维护不同文化背

1.0 Introduction  介绍

随着企业全球化的推进,跨文化管理逐渐受到企业的重视(Bird和Mendenhall,2016)。跨文化管理是指在全球运营中,管理者在跨文化条件下克服异质文化的冲突,维护不同文化背景员工的共同行为准则,保持供应品、客户之间的顺畅沟通。不同文化背景的社会组织(侯、凡、谭、华、瓦尔德斯,2018)。那么什么是文化,如何理解文化已经成为跨文化管理的前提,但目前的问题是没有统一的标准来定义和理解文化。以Hofstede(2003)、Minkov(2017)、Trompnaars(1997)为代表的学者提出了大文化观。以霍利迪(1999)、辛格(1998)、詹姆逊(2007)为代表的学者提出了一种小文化观。大文化和小文化之间有很大的差异。这给试图将这些理论应用于跨文化管理的公司和人员造成了巨大的混乱(侯、范、谭、华、瓦尔德斯,2018)。如何认识他们的长处和弱点,并利用它们来接近商业文化,是一个有趣而有价值的话题。本文旨在从“大”文化和“小”文化的角度考察跨文化分工,分析文化在企业战略中的应用。本文首先介绍了大文化的概念和内涵,并分析了其不足之处。提出了小文化的概念和内涵,探讨了小文化的弱点。最后,它建议如何选择在商业环境中构思文化的方法和处理文化的方法。

With the advancement of the globalization of enterprises, cross-cultural management has gradually gained increasing attention from enterprises (Bird and Mendenhall, 2016). Cross-cultural management means that in global operation, managers overcome the conflicts of heterogeneous cultures under cross-cultural conditions to maintain the common code of conduct for employees with different cultural backgrounds and maintain smooth communication between supplies, customers, social organizations with different cultural backgrounds (Hou, Fan, Tan, Hua and Valdez, 2018). Then what is culture, how to understand culture has become the premise of cross-cultural management, but the current problem is that there is no unified standard for the definition and understanding of culture. Scholars represented by Hofstede (2003), Minkov (2017), Trompnaars (1997) put forward the view of large culture. Scholars represented by Holliday (1999), Singer (1998), Jameson (2007) put forward a small culture perspective. There are big differences between the large and small cultures. This has caused great confusion for companies and people who are trying to apply these theories for cross-cultural management (Hou, Fan, Tan, Hua and Valdez, 2018). How to recognize their strengths and weaknesses and make use of them for approaching culture in business is an interesting and valuable topic. The aim of this paper was to examine intercultural division from the perspective of “large” and 'small” cultures, analyze the application of cultures in business strategies. This article first introduced the concept and connotation of large culture, and analyzed its weaknesses. The concept and connotation of small culture were presented to explore its weaknesses. Finally, it recommended on how to choose ways to conceive culture and ways to approach culture in a business environment.

 

2.0 Main body

2.1 Large culture 

Judging from the view of large culture, it holds that culture is a priori, and it can be measured from a nation-based perspective, dimensions can be used to define what it is. Once these are known, it is helpful for business (Ehrenfreund, Peter, Schrogl and Logsdon, 2010). International managers should recognize the existence of cultural differences and respect these differences, and make good use of the diversity caused by cultural differences in management. Effectively using knowledge has become the most important source of competitive advantage today, because it determines how companies apply and maintain their core strengths and the learning methods of the organizations. The proponents that support a large culture perspective are Hofstede (2003), Minkov (2017), Trompnaars (1997). They believed that culture is a set of rules and methods, in a particular social development process, its culture has gradually evolved and become the standard for a society to solve various recurring problems. They are so deeply rooted in people’s hearts. Hofstede (2003) and Minkov (2017) commented that culture is a psychological process that people share in an environment that distinguishes a group of people from others. Hofstede (2003) figured that members of every country have a common pattern of behavior influenced by culture, as individuals, parents, employees, national civil servants, or other members of a society are inevitably affected by these patterns of behavior, reflecting different values and cultural characteristics. Through research, he summarized the differences between different cultures into six basic cultural value dimensions: power distance, it refers to the degree of acceptance of the unequal distribution of power in society or organizations by people with low status in a society; uncertainty avoidance, it refers to whether a society adopts formal channels to avoid and control uncertainty when it is subject to uncertain events and unconventional environmental threats; individualism / collectivism, it measures whether a society as a whole pays attention to the interests of individuals or the interests of the collective; masculinity / femininity, it mainly depends on the quality of a society represented by men, such as competition and arbitrariness, or the quality of women, such as modesty, caring for others, and the definition of male and female functions by the culture; long-term / short-term dimension, it refers to the extent to which members of a culture are acceptable to delaying the satisfaction of their material, emotional, and social needs; indulgence / restraint dimension, it refers to the degree to which a society allows the basic needs of people and enjoy the desire for life (Hofstede, 2003). Hofstede's cultural dimension model is widely used in the research and practice of cross-cultural management, it has a high degree of influence in cross-cultural research and application.

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