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摘要:1.0 Introduction 介绍 随着企业全球化的推进,跨文化管理逐渐受到企业的重视(Bird和Mendenhall,2016)。跨文化管理是指......

1.0 Introduction 介绍 随着企业全球化的推进,跨文化管理逐渐受到企业的重视(Bird和Mendenhall,2016)。跨文化管理是指在全球运营中,管理者在跨文化条件下克服异质文化的冲突,维护不同文化背

1.0 Introduction  介绍


With the advancement of the globalization of enterprises, cross-cultural management has gradually gained increasing attention from enterprises (Bird and Mendenhall, 2016). Cross-cultural management means that in global operation, managers overcome the conflicts of heterogeneous cultures under cross-cultural conditions to maintain the common code of conduct for employees with different cultural backgrounds and maintain smooth communication between supplies, customers, social organizations with different cultural backgrounds (Hou, Fan, Tan, Hua and Valdez, 2018). Then what is culture, how to understand culture has become the premise of cross-cultural management, but the current problem is that there is no unified standard for the definition and understanding of culture. Scholars represented by Hofstede (2003), Minkov (2017), Trompnaars (1997) put forward the view of large culture. Scholars represented by Holliday (1999), Singer (1998), Jameson (2007) put forward a small culture perspective. There are big differences between the large and small cultures. This has caused great confusion for companies and people who are trying to apply these theories for cross-cultural management (Hou, Fan, Tan, Hua and Valdez, 2018). How to recognize their strengths and weaknesses and make use of them for approaching culture in business is an interesting and valuable topic. The aim of this paper was to examine intercultural division from the perspective of “large” and 'small” cultures, analyze the application of cultures in business strategies. This article first introduced the concept and connotation of large culture, and analyzed its weaknesses. The concept and connotation of small culture were presented to explore its weaknesses. Finally, it recommended on how to choose ways to conceive culture and ways to approach culture in a business environment.


2.0 Main body

2.1 Large culture 

Judging from the view of large culture, it holds that culture is a priori, and it can be measured from a nation-based perspective, dimensions can be used to define what it is. Once these are known, it is helpful for business (Ehrenfreund, Peter, Schrogl and Logsdon, 2010). International managers should recognize the existence of cultural differences and respect these differences, and make good use of the diversity caused by cultural differences in management. Effectively using knowledge has become the most important source of competitive advantage today, because it determines how companies apply and maintain their core strengths and the learning methods of the organizations. The proponents that support a large culture perspective are Hofstede (2003), Minkov (2017), Trompnaars (1997). They believed that culture is a set of rules and methods, in a particular social development process, its culture has gradually evolved and become the standard for a society to solve various recurring problems. They are so deeply rooted in people’s hearts. Hofstede (2003) and Minkov (2017) commented that culture is a psychological process that people share in an environment that distinguishes a group of people from others. Hofstede (2003) figured that members of every country have a common pattern of behavior influenced by culture, as individuals, parents, employees, national civil servants, or other members of a society are inevitably affected by these patterns of behavior, reflecting different values and cultural characteristics. Through research, he summarized the differences between different cultures into six basic cultural value dimensions: power distance, it refers to the degree of acceptance of the unequal distribution of power in society or organizations by people with low status in a society; uncertainty avoidance, it refers to whether a society adopts formal channels to avoid and control uncertainty when it is subject to uncertain events and unconventional environmental threats; individualism / collectivism, it measures whether a society as a whole pays attention to the interests of individuals or the interests of the collective; masculinity / femininity, it mainly depends on the quality of a society represented by men, such as competition and arbitrariness, or the quality of women, such as modesty, caring for others, and the definition of male and female functions by the culture; long-term / short-term dimension, it refers to the extent to which members of a culture are acceptable to delaying the satisfaction of their material, emotional, and social needs; indulgence / restraint dimension, it refers to the degree to which a society allows the basic needs of people and enjoy the desire for life (Hofstede, 2003). Hofstede's cultural dimension model is widely used in the research and practice of cross-cultural management, it has a high degree of influence in cross-cultural research and application.

本文标签: Business英国IntercultuCommu

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