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摘要:Abstract摘要 大家都熟悉戴尔的供应链,大家都认为戴尔的成功与其供应链运作模式直接相关。但对诺基亚的供应链了......

大家都熟悉戴尔的供应链,大家都认为戴尔的成功与其供应链运作模式直接相关。但对诺基亚的供应链了解的人并不多,事实上,诺基亚长期以来一直主宰着全球手机市场,这主要归功于其供应链。本文对诺基亚供应链进行了全面、系统、动态的实证研究。基于供应链理论,分析了公司的整体竞争优势和竞争策略。此外,我们还从动态和进化的角度研究了诺基亚的供应链。本文根据供应链过程,从采购战略、制造战略、渠道战略、客户服务战略等实际阶段和战略模块,对诺基亚的供应链进行了全面的描述。

本文在研究了供应链管理策略的基础上,简要分析了诺基亚供应链管理中存在的问题。根据对诺基亚供应链管理策略的研究成果,提出了相应的建议和改进方法。

Everyone is familiar with Dell's supply chain, and everyone agrees that Dell's success is directly related to its supply chain operation mode. But not many people are familiar with Nokia's supply chain,In fact, Nokia has long dominated the global mobile phone market, largely due to its supply chain. This paper makes a comprehensive, systematic and dynamic study to demonstrate of Nokia supply chain. Based on the supply chain theory, we analyze the company’s overall competitive advantage and competitive strategy. Besides, we also study the Nokia supply chain from a dynamic and evolutionary perspective. According to the supply chain process, this paper comprehensively describes the Nokia’s supply chain, from the practical stage and strategy module, such as purchasing strategy, manufacturing strategy, channel strategy, customer service strategy.

After studying the supply chain management strategy, this paper also makes a brief analysis of the problems in Nokia supply chain management. According to the research results of Nokia supply chain management strategy, corresponding suggestions and improvement methods are proposed.


1. Introduction介绍

20世纪90年代以来,物流与供应链研究在学术界和商业界都非常流行。提出了许多著名的概念和理论,探索了许多经典的优秀供应链实践案例。然而,大家都熟悉戴尔的供应链,大家都认为戴尔的成功与其供应链运作模式直接相关。但很少有人熟悉诺基亚的供应链。大多数研究都局限于一些已知的早期案例,如北京“星园模式”等,对诺基亚供应链的全面、系统和动态研究还相对较少。本文试图对供应链及其管理理论进行一些充实。

本文以移动通信产业的发展为背景,以供应链及其管理理论为基础,以诺基亚的供应链为研究对象,从理论和实践上全面、系统地研究了诺基亚供应链战略及其演变。Y,经验性和动态性(Christopher,2016年)。首先,综合分析是指供应链过程,尽可能全面描述诺基亚的供应链。其次,系统分析是基于竞争优势理论和供应链理论。分析公司的整体竞争优势和竞争战略,研究公司在不同发展阶段的经营战略转型。第三,运用更多的实证证据。本文试图通过对不同时期诺基亚供应链的实证研究,来研究诺基亚的供应链。最后,动态意味着供应链是不固定的。要不断探索总结经验,发现不足,及时学习更多成功的供应链案例,弥补不足。

Since the 1990s, logistics and supply chain research has been very popular in both academic and business circles. Many famous concepts and theories are put forward, and many classic excellent supply chain practice cases are also explored. However, everyone is familiar with dell's supply chain, and everyone agrees that dell's success is directly related to its supply chain operation mode. But few are familiar with Nokia's supply chain. Most of the studies have been limited to a few known earlier cases, like Beijing "star garden model" and so on, comprehensive、systematic and dynamic research on Nokia supply chain is still relatively few. This paper tries to make some efforts to enrich the supply chain and its management theory. 

Based on the development of the mobile communication industry and Based on the supply chain and its management theory, taking Nokia's supply chain as the research object, this paper attempts to study Nokia supply chain strategy and its evolution in theory and practice comprehensively, systematically, empirically and dynamically (Christopher, 2016). First of all, comprehensive analysis refers to the supply chain process, as far as possible comprehensive description of Nokia's supply chain. Secondly, system analysis is based on the competitive advantage theory and supply chain theory. Analyze the overall competitive advantage and competitive strategy of the company, and study the business strategy transformation of the company in different development periods. Third, apply more empirical evidence. This paper tries not to limit itself to a few earlier cases that are already known, but to study Nokia's supply chain with more empirical studies in different periods. Finally, dynamic means that the supply chain is not fixed. We should constantly explore and summarize our experience, find out our shortcomings, and timely learn more successful supply chain cases to make up for our shortcomings.

 

2. Nokia background

Nokia Corporation is a multinational company headquartered in espoo, Finland, specializing in the production and related services of mobile communication devices. Nokia was founded in 1865, mainly engaged in logging and papermaking, and gradually expanded into the fields of rubber shoes, tires and cables. Later, it developed into a mobile phone manufacturer, focusing on the research, development and authorization of basic communication services and advanced technologies (Nokia Corporation , 2018). 

On February 11, 2011, Nokia and Microsoft reached a global strategic alliance and deeply cooperated to develop the Windows Phone operating system. Faced with the rise of smartphones with new operating systems, Nokia's position as the world's largest mobile phone seller was surpassed by samsung in the first quarter of 2012, ending 14 years of market dominance.  On September 3, 2013, Microsoft announced that it would acquire Nokia's devices and services division for 5.44 billion euros and obtain the relevant patents and brand authorization. In the future, Nokia will strive to develop Here map services, solutions and networks (NSN) and three pillar businesses of leading technology. On April 25, 2014, Nokia announced the completion of the mobile phone business transaction with Microsoft and the sale of the device and service business to Microsoft. On November 18, 2014, Nokia officially released the first Android tablets, after Nokia will be committed to the mobile network infrastructure, software and services, surveying and mapping navigation and intelligent positioning, advanced technology research and development and authorization. On November 18, 2015, Nokia officially launched its $16.6 billion acquisition of alcatel-lucent. On May 18, 2016, Nokia brand was authorized to be manufactured by HMD and fuzhikang under honghai group. Nokia's progress has been inextricably linked to its sound supply chain management strategy.

 

3. Nokia supply chain strategy and its evolution

Based on the supply chain theory, especially the analysis framework of supply chain strategy, focusing on Nokia's supply chain strategy practice and its evolution, Analyze how they contribute to the competitive advantage of enterprises in cost reduction and service enhancement. First, analysis from Nokia's supply chain practice in different periods in general and modularize the supply chain strategy. Then each strategy module is analyzed and discussed in detail.

3.1 Nokia supply chain evolution and strategy module

In the context of economic and technological development, Along with the development of enterprises, the supply chain practice of any enterprise is a process from primary to advanced, from partial to whole, from imperfect to mature (Handfield, 1999). Although the process is complex and often crisscrossed, in view of the general principles of organizational design and business management of enterprises, the construction and management of supply chain usually implement modularization, overall division of labor (Chopra, 2015). Nokia supply chain practice can be divided into four stages with the development of enterprises. That is, focusing on functional stage, internal integration stage, external integration stage and end-to-end integration stage. According to the supply chain process, Nokia's supply chain strategy module can be divided into procurement strategy, manufacture strategy, channel strategy, customer service strategy, and end-to-end supply chain structure, supply and demand plan and information management.

Stage 1: focus on functions. The functional departments of enterprises focus on improving their own processes and improving resource utilization. The department manager usually focuses on the cost and functional performance of the department. The process of cross-functional departments is not well understood, which limits the operation efficiency of complex supply chain processes. Obviously, it is not enough to focus on local performance optimization. Long-term accumulation will lead to big problems. Nokia's 1995 operating crisis has to do with the failure to address supply and demand globally and collectively. 

Stage 2:Internal integration. The enterprise has defined the process and overall process of the cross-business department so that each functional department can clearly understand its role in the complex supply chain process. After the operation crisis in 1995, Nokia began to plan and reform its supply chain system from 1996 on a global scale, and took supply chain management as an important strategic measure.  

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