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Nowadays we can distinguish many different types of leadership styles. Some of them are respected by employees, but on the other hand there are also styles which are considered very poorly. This paper presents and explores leadership styles based on the observations of managers in Sainsbury's Nine Elms. In the first part research question has been formed and discussed. The second part is a literature review, with characteristic of most popular leadership styles. In the third part, methodology which will be used for research and to find an answer on research question will be discussed.
1.0 INTRODUCTION 简介
Human resource management is a series of activities which, first enables working people and the organisation which uses their skills to agree about the objectives and nature of their working relationship. Secondly, ensures that the agreement is fulfilled. (Torrington, 2008)
This research project will be based on a field, which is human resource. One of the topics which should be explored in reference to human resources is leadership style. In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocating and empowerment. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a pushover whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information and move decision making down into the organization.
We recognize effective leaders when we work with them or observe them. However many different ways exist for defining who leaders are and when they are effective. Dictionaries define leading as "guiding and directing on a course". A leader is someone with commanding authority or influence. Researchers have developed many working definitions of leadership. According to Nahavandi (2009) leader is a person who influence individuals and groups within an organization, helps them in establishing goals and guides them toward achievement of those goals, thereby allowing them to be effective. Leadership is a function more than a role. Good leaders are made not born.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION
Research Question is a statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied.
The research question, which I am going to study is: How does the leadership style affect employees performance in the organisation? The research will be based on the case study, which is supermarket. Sainsbury's Nine Elms is a place where I have been working for over 3 years. I have a contact with managers every day and what's more I am familiar with different styles of leadership. This experience helps me to formulate the following hypothesis: positive and accurate leadership style motivates people to good and effective work. To find an answer on my research question and to confirm my hypothesis, I will do some qualitative research. This type of research is designed to tell the researcher how and why the things happen as they actually do. It helps to achieve an in-depth understanding of a situation.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Positive atmosphere in the work place is a very important factor and has a big influence on employees job. This is why the way how leaders and managers behave is so important. Unfortunately my long-time observations prove that managers very often do not even realize what kind of mistakes they do. They do not understand that their inappropriate way of behaviour, has an influence on people's work and effectiveness of the organization. The aim of this report, based on literature review, is to describe the most valuable and effective leadership styles. Moreover the most negative styles will be considered, those which are not approved of by employees. Finally some interviews with Sainsbury's Nine Elms employees will be made to gather their opinions and verify my hypothesis.
LITERATURE REVIEW 文献综述
2.1 LEADERSHIP STYLES IN EARLY XX
Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire.
In the past several decades, there has been a significant revolution in how the leadership is defined by management experts. Their approach has changed from a classical one to a very innovative, democratic approach. Although it was also determined that some old ideas were still good whereas some of the new ones were not perfect. The key is to use different styles depending on each situation so leaders have to approach every case in a different way.
LEADERSHIP STYLES TODAY
There are four primary leadership styles, many of them we can find within most businesses or organizations around the world. These styles are:
Each of the leadership styles has impact on employee performance in the company. There are short and long-term effects of each style. For instance, the authoritative style may produce great results in a short amount of time. However, excessive use of authority will decrease productivity in the long-term. People either get fed up and leave or fall into a malaise of hum-drum repetitive tasks without creativity and innovation. (Sadler, 2003)
The autocratic leadership style is very often regarded as an old fashioned technique. It was a very popular style among managers commanding subordinates and it is still used around the world. This style basically comes natural to many leaders and brings many benefits, thus many managers start to lead using this style and try to improve it when pursuing their own leadership development. This style is used when leaders inform their employees what they want done and how they want it attained, without being advised by their followers. Furthermore when leaders are short on time, they have all information needed to achieve a goal and employees are enthused, autocratic still is also common. Nevertheless it should be used occasionally and with big carefulness. Having a lot of time and dealing with highly motivated workers it is better to use democratic style.
The democratic leadership style is also named the participative style due to the fact that it encourages one or more employees to be a part of the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). Nevertheless it is the leader who makes the final decision and maintains authority. Definitely this style strengthens the position of the leader which is respected by his employees. When information and data is divided between the leader and employees, democratic style is used very often. Managers are not expected to be familiar with everything, this is why they employ knowledgeable and competent employees. Concluding, using this style is of mutual benefit, because employees can become a part of the team and on the other hand leaders can make better decisions.
The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the "hands-offÂ¨ style. This style is based on making the decisions by employees whenever the leader let them. Even though, he is still responsible for all the decisions. This style is used usually when employees are able to decide what needs to be done and how. They also should have good analytical skills. Leaders only set most of the priorities for their team and divide tasks between employees. This style should be used only when leaders are confident about his people and trust them no matter what. It should not be used as a way of blaming employees of made mistakes.
The bureaucratic leadership follow the rules rigorously and guarantee that staff follows procedures accurately. In this kind of style everything must be done according to the rules or policy. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with heavy equipment, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as handling cash). If manager is not capable of making decision on his own, he refers to the next level above him or her. The role of the leader is very similar to a police officer.
OTHER LEADERSHIP STYLES
There are a number of different approaches or styles to leadership and management that are based on different assumptions and theories. The style that individuals use will be based on a combination of their beliefs, values and preferences, as well as the organizational culture and norms which will encourage some styles and discourage others.
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