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时间:2021-10-06 01:34 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本文是美国留学生essay范文,主要内容是讲述美国电信管制和管理方面的发展历史,并讨论技术和政策对现代电信的影......

美国电信管制与管理的历史

History Of Telecommunications Regulation And Management In America 

 

要充分认识当前美国电信行业,需要了解历史,如何塑造它或使它成为现在的样子。一个高效的电信系统在社会的各个方面都是如此的重要,因此政府经常介入,以确保新技术的部署在一个进一步的共同财产。电信时代的到来,一般包括一家电信公司为另一家电信公司提供服务,或者是另一家电信公司做出一些让步。”例如,美国联邦通信委员会(FCC)可能为了本地电话运营商允许竞争对手使用其地下电缆,因为这样做会让竞争对手提供新的、更好的服务。在美国,政府的介入已经显著改变了电信产业。其中一个最重要的政府行为发生在1984年,法院和FCC故意打破了美国电话电报(AT&T),这一直是一个受管制的垄断企业电话系统的。正如我写这份报告,有一个开放的竞争,在美国电信服务,提供更大的创新和优惠的定价制度相比,垄断性质的,在本文中,我们将讨论技术和政策的演变,导致在现代电信领域,并突出一些关键发现。

 

ABSTRACT 摘要

To fully understand the current telecommunications industry in America, one need to fathom the historical forces that shaped it or that made it to be where it is now. An efficient telecommunication system is so paramount in all parts of the society; so governments frequently intervene to ensure that new technology is deployed in a way to further the common property. The telecommunication era has generally involves the forcing of one telecommunications company to provide services for another or to make some other type of concession. "For example, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) may order a local phone carrier to allow a competitor to use its underground cable because doing so would allow the competitor to provide new and better services"[1:97]. In America, the government involvement has significantly transformed the telecommunication industry. One of the most important government actions took place in 1984 when the courts and the FCC purposefully broke up American Telegraph and Telephone (AT&T), which has been a regulated monopoly phone system for much of the twentieth (20th) century. As I am writing this report, there is an open competition in telecommunication service in America, which offers greater innovation and favorable pricing system as compared to the monopolistic nature of AT&T. In this paper, we will be discussing about both the technical and policy evolution that has resulted in the modern field of telecommunication and highlighting some critical discoveries.

 

INTRODUCTION 引言

While the history of government regulation of telecommunication in the United States is as long as the history of modern civilization, the modern regulation of telecommunications is relatively short and can be dated to the rise of the telegraph in the mid-19th century. The United States left the telegraph in private hands and they have done the same with most of the significant telecommunications facilities and infrastructure that have been developed since. The decision to allow private ownership of telecommunications infrastructure has led to a rather particularized regulation of these private owners of public infrastructures. In the early part of the 20th century, the telecommunication industry in America was characterized by significant regulation and little competition. Later in the 20th century, the government attempted to reduce the restrictions on telecommunication companies.

 

ISSUES OF TELECOMMUNICATION REGULATIONS IN AMERICA 美国电信条例的问题

Generally speaking, the regulations of telecommunication in America have been of three main types: 1. common carriage requirements; 2. interconnection requirements; and 3. scarcity management. Each of these types of regulation can be illustrated through the examples of the two main telecommunications industries of the 19th and early 20th century: the telegraph and the telephone industry.

In the early 1800s, the first commercial telegraph was constructed in 1839 in Great Britain. In the United States, by the 1850s the industry was intensely competitive, with multiple carriers frequently serving identical routes. The lack of integration between systems and the low profits for providers prompted a process of consolidation that culminated in Western Union's gaining a monopoly on long-distance telegraph service by 1866. At the time, no federal antitrust law was available as a tool for regulation, so Congress responded to criticisms of Western Union by passing the United States' first telecommunication regulatory statute, the Telegraph Act of 1866. The Telegraph Act was intended to foster competition by allowing any company to erect telegraph lines along post roads, and it also included a provision whereby the United States could buy out telegraph companies if it so chose. In practice, the Telegraph Act had little practical effect, as it failed to create effective competition for Western Union, and Congress never exercised its option to buy out the company and nationalize the industry. As a result, through the latter half of the Nineteenth century, Western Union was able to charge monopoly prices, support a newswire monopoly (the Associated Press) and discriminate against disfavored customers through its pricing. The firm was also able to use its monopoly to exert substantial political influence by, among other things, refusing to give certain news organizations access to its system to transmit their reporting. For example, in the contested Presidential Election of 1876, Western Union's backing of Presidential candidate Rutherford Hayes gave the candidate important advantages both in reaching newspaper and detecting the plans of his rival [4 :1-2].

本文标签: 代写美国essayessay范文电信管理

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