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摘要:本文的目的是分析全球品牌如何减轻消费者的民族中心主义的影响,探索新的市场。......

Q1:Discuss strategies global brands can use to minimize consumer ethnocentrism when entering new, foreign markets.讨论全球品牌可以减少消费者民族中心主义在进入国外市场的新策略。

 

本文首先给消费者民族中心主义的背景。然后它将讨论消费者民族中心主义的影响。最后,减少消费者民族中心主义策略被证明。

在购买产品时,消费者会考虑和评估从许多不同的方面,包括原产地、广告、价格等,原产国,这是一个最重要的因素,会受到消费者民族中心主义的影响(mockaitis et al,2013)。夏尔马和辛普定义消费者民族中心主义”的消费者,让他们从自己的国家购买产品和拒绝外国制造的产品”的感受(在班达拉和miloslava,2012,pp. 5引)。

根据Purwanto(2014),产品质量感知和消费者购买意愿会直接影响消费者的民族中心主义。Purwanto(2014)指出,消费者民族中心主义对国内产品质量产生积极的影响。这就意味着消费者倾向于评估国内品牌比国外品牌更为积极。除此之外,消费者民族中心主义对购买意向的影响。消费者民族中心主义倾向于拒绝国外品牌产品(Purwanto,2014)。例如,欧洲迪斯尼没有法国市场。纽厄尔(2013)解释说,欧洲迪斯尼忽视欧洲文化和继续采用美式风格在巴黎引起抗议法国的民族因为法国人认为迪士尼作为一个入侵。一般来说较高的种族中心主义的消费者,更多的负面情绪,他们觉得在购买外国产品因为他们要保护国家经济和就业(莲子et al,2012)。显然,国内产品质量高的评价也会导致购买意愿的积极作用(Purwanto,2014)。民族中心主义使消费者认为国内产品的质量比国外更好的产品,因此,他们更愿意买本地产品。在高消费者民族中心主义的国家,全球品牌固有的缺点。The purpose of this essay is to analyze how global brands mitigate the effect of consumer ethnocentrism when exploring new markets. It will firstly give a background of consumer ethnocentrism. And then it will discuss consumer ethnocentrism impact. Finally strategies of minimizing consumer ethnocentrism would be demonstrated. 

 

When purchasing products, consumers would consider and evaluate from many different aspects including country-of-origin, advertisement, price, etc. Among them, the country-of-origin, which is one of the most significant factors, would affected by consumer ethnocentrism (Mockaitis et al, 2013). Sharma and Shimp define consumer ethnocentrism as “the feelings of consumers that compel them to buy products from their home country and reject foreign-made products” (cited in Bandara and Miloslava, 2012, pp. 5). 

 

According to Purwanto (2014), product quality perception and consumer purchase intention would be affected directly by consumer ethnocentrism. Purwanto (2014) notes that consumer ethnocentrism has a positive impact on domestic product quality. That means consumers tend to evaluate domestic brands more positively than foreign brands. Apart from that, consumers ethnocentrism has effect on purchase intentions. Consumers with ethnocentrism will tend to reject foreign brand products (Purwanto, 2014). For example, EuroDisney failed in French market. Newell (2013) explains that EuroDisney ignored European culture and continued to adopt American style in Paris which caused protest by French with ethnocentrism because French considered Disney as an invasion. Generally the higher ethnocentrism consumers have, the more negative emotions they feel when buying foreign products because they want to protect national economy and employment (Renko et al, 2012). Obviously, high evaluation of domestic product quality will also lead to positive effect on purchase intentions (Purwanto, 2014). The ethnocentrism makes consumers think domestic products have better quality than foreign products, consequently, they are more willing to buy local products. In high consumer ethnocentrism countries, global brands have inherent disadvantage.

 

Thus, the influence of consumer ethnocentrism cannot be underestimated. Global brands need to take appropriate measurements to minimize consumer ethnocentrism. First of all, global brands are supposed to emphasize local connection. Consumers would feel be respected if global brands connect local traditions so that consumers would have positive attitudes towards those companies (Kipni et al, 2012). Global brands would benefit from making consumers think that the brand understands local cultures and is part of host country. Johansson and Ronkainen (2005) also assert that if consumers prefer home-grow companies, global brands could adopt localization strategy to cater to consumers. Global brands could modify advertisement by using local star and adding local cultural element or change shop design, etc. For instance, Carlsberg, a famous beer brand, made a huge success in Poland. Carlsberg promoted its products by embracing Polish elements such as advertising that Carlsberg beer was made with Polish water. That made Polish consumers consider Carlsberg as Polish friendly brand (Kipni et al, 2009). Another example would be Mr Clean turning to Mr Propre in France (Johansson and Ronkainen, 2005). Mr Clean changed brand name in order to accord with local linguistic habit and avoid confusion with other products. Therefore, it is critical for global brands to make ethnocentrism consumers believe that the brands are trying to connect and adapt domestic cultures.    

 

Secondly, global brands should take full advantage of mass media. Ural and Kucukaslan (2011) demonstrate the importance of media channels. Consumers are surrounded by mass media, most consumers’ perceptions of global brands come from those channels. That report suggests that global marketers should value the effect of mass media and learn to utilize mass media to promote products properly. Holt et al (2004) also say that attitudes of consumers towards global brands will be affected by mass media and comments on the Internet. Puzakova et al (2010) state that consumers who have higher exposure to mass media have higher acceptance to global brands. That is because mass media such as TV programmes and movies usually include numbers of global brands. Those brands would be shown indirectly by scene, dialogue and characters life so that the brands would be added vivid and deeper meaning (Puzakova et al, 2010). That could make consumers more familiar with the brands and win consumers’ favours and support. If a product frequently appears on a consumer’s favorite TV show, the consumer would have desire to purchase this product (Morton & Friedman, 2002). Hence, global brands can change or mitigate ethnocentrism consumers’ prejudices towards global brands by mass media. 

 

What’s more, building a credible myth could add extra value to a global brand.  Global companies should give the brands a identification. That means global brands need to tell consumers what the brands represent and what kind of person consumers would be considered if consumers purchase products of these brands. Global brands should not sell product or quality simply, the brands ought to deliver an image and sell an ideal (Holt et al, 2004). For instance, Marlboro, a very big cigarettes brand, successfully linked the brand with cowboy. Cowboys signal strength, independence and power which are what men want to aspire. Cowboy image made Marlboro be one of the most recognized brands in the world. A successful brand myth could establish emotional connection with consumers. Creating a myth could make the brand have a unified image so that consumers may ignore the country-of-origin.  

 

Last but not least, global brands should pay attention to social responsibility. Holt et al (2004) claim that social responsibility is the third consideration when consumers choose global brands. In general, consumers expect global brands shoulder greater social responsibility than local brands. For instance, Shell’s has been blamed for a long time because it planed to sink its oil rig which would cause global warming. But consumers do not strictly require local companies to protect environment. If global companies violate ethical principles, consumers have less tolerance towards global brands. According to Stewart (2013), public refused Nike products in Indonesia because of abusing labour. Nike outsource production overseas due to cheaper labour. Nike offered very low wages and abused workers physically and mentally such as kick, screaming with insulting words, etc. When this situation had been reported, it created a huge stir in Indonesia. However, public usually tend to ignore local brands with these problems (Holt et al, 2004). The Press also does not have so much interest in investigating or reporting local brands ethical issues. Therefore, global brands should work harder to improve image of corporate social responsibility than local brands. Companies could use more environmentally friendly materials, sponsor sports events, participate charity activities, etc.   

 

Nevertheless, Holt et al (2004) point out subsequently that only taking social responsibility is not enough. Nowadays, some actions would be considered by consumers as just promotion methods instead of contribution to society. Hence, global companies need to make consumers believe that they sincerely want to pay back to the local society. Then, how to make consumers believe? Global brands can learn from P&G. P&G found out that many people were utilizing unsafe water by investigation. In order to mitigate this situation, P&G developed a purification system. P&G used its own resources and sacrified some interests to help people and society, which successfully makes consumers regard its activity as non-profit (Holt et al, 2004).  

本文标签: Management|S

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