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时间:2021-10-09 08:00 来源: Essay代写

摘要:摘要:本文主要讲述了传统的学校来自公司业务的研究和利用相同的题目来衡量成功和效率。......

评估韦克就松散耦合的概念
Assessing weicks concept of loose coupling


传统的学校来自公司业务的研究和利用相同的题目来衡量成功和效率(伯恩鲍姆,1988年,p.22)。他们假设行动导致行政意图:一个组织利用centrally-rationalized计划提供意味着一个结束,和行动直接利用这些手段造成的管理员的影响力和权力。这因果组件是领导者的域,因此,领导的角色在组织内的理由——也就是说,进步在一个组织需要驾驶领导人激励,行动改变。虽然这种类型的leadership-activity代表什么可能发生在私营企业,这些动作和连接一般不需要在大学。由于这种差异,组织的另一个解释是必要的。

卡尔·韦克(1976)对使用这种类型的管理理论来描述和评价学校。他提出了一个不同的评估高校的组织框架。松散耦合认为,一个机构的组合机构的性质导致组件是自然比组件的业务更加孤立。企业被设计成mission-focused,单个组件的任务存在进一步的公司的成功。大学也同样复杂的组织,但每个组件可能有自己的使命,或者大学的使命的一个独特的解释。因此,这些组件可以与对方(耦合)和强度低于会发现业务。他们经常在自己的利益,促进议程可能不符合大学的使命。最终,学校组件可能远离决策和协调的努力从一个中央管理或计划。这些差异本身并不意味着学校是杂乱无章的,不协调,或者效率低下,只有他们不同于私人同行。

Traditional accounts of schools come from the study of corporate business and utilize the same rubrics to measure success and efficiency (Birnbaum, 1988, p. 22). They operate on the assumption that action is causally linked to administrative intent: an organization utilizes centrally-rationalized plans to provide means to an end, and actions utilizing those means are directly caused by the administrator's influence and power. This causal component is the leader's domain, and thus the justification for leadership's role within the organization - that is, progress within an organization requires action from a driving leader to motivate that change. While this type of leadership-activity is representative of what presumably occurs in the private corporate sector, these actions and connections do not generally entail in universities. Due in part to this difference, another explanation of organization is necessary.

Karl Weick (1976) took issue with using this type of management theory to describe and evaluate schools. He proposed a different frame for evaluating the organization of universities. Loose coupling argues that an institution's variegated nature causes components of the institution to be naturally more isolated than the components of a business. Businesses are designed to be mission-focused, and the individual components of that mission exist to further the company's success. Universities are similarly complex organizations, but each individual component may have its own mission, or a unique interpretation of the University's mission. Thus, these components may be tied to each other (coupled) with less strength than would be found in business. They often act in their own interests, promoting agendas that may not coincide with the university mission. Ultimately, school components may be insulated from decisions and coordinating efforts from a central administration or plan. These differences do not inherently mean that schools are disorganized, uncoordinated, or inefficient, only that they are different from their private counterparts.

Robert Birnbaum (1988) embraces the idea of loose coupling. He points to the differing missions of universities and businesses: while businesses are simplistically designed to make money, "there is no metric in higher education comparable to money in business" (Birnbaum, 1988, p. 11). This difference is further illustrated by contrasting the singular-administration of business to the 'parallel administration' found in universities (Birnbaum, 1988, p. 9). University leaders - both administrators and faculty - operate in different spheres, utilize different forms of authority, and interact with externalities in different ways. These leaders "form separated and isolated enclaves in which they are likely to communicate only with people similar to themselves" (Birnbaum, 1988, p. 7). Had Birnbaum utilized more traditional management-evaluation methods, this finding would instead have faulted faculty for being resistant to guidance from their administrative leaders, and faulted leaders for not having the ability to guide and control the institution efficiently.
As such, Birnbaum promotes the idea of governance in education, rather than management. While historically control over a university may have been in the hands of the Board or Trustees, "as institutions became more complex, boards delegated de facto authority to presidents" (Birnbaum, 1988, p. 5). Thus governance is a sharing of powers between interested parties within the system. This delegation of powers illustrates the differentiation of duties - presidents originally came from within the faculty, and further complexity led to professional administrators with minimal or no faculty history. Administration takes the form of governance rather than management - allowing individual units to be relatively isolated and self-determined in ways the business world would find apocryphal, while still paying homage to central administration's place in the system.

本文标签: 组织框架loose coupli

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