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The report points to recent developments in the hotel, catering and tourism sector and highlights factors driving the internationalization of tourists' travel and of tourism services, including information technologies, as well as the internationalization of hotel and tourism enterprises. Without neglecting the huge sub sector of small and medium-sized enterprises, it describes typical features related to the composition of the labour force and to working conditions. It raises questions concerning the difficulties faced by the sector in attracting and retaining skilled workers in enhancing the skills of newcomers to the labour market in order to stabilize the sector's labour force, while increasing the productivity of enterprises and the quality of services.
1. Role of the HRM function in delivering service quality--人力资源管理功能在提供服务质量中的作用。
Until relatively recently, the role of employees in hotel and tourism service offerings was generally under-valued in the UK, especially at a strategic level. With the advent of human resource management in the past couple of decades however, the contribution of employees - and their management - in this context has achieved greater recognition and organisational status. One catalyst for this promotion in organisational standing is the drive for quality service.
This case illustrates the contemporary organisational contribution of human resource management and its relationship with quality service. The Hilton Group plc, with its UK- driven launch of a renewed quality offensive across the globe, is the case used to exemplify the development of human resource strategy and employee development for quality service in the international hotel sector. The singularly important conclusion that is drawn is the co- dependency between human resource management and development on the one hand and quality service on the other.
This case is to provide a basis for discussion about: 本案例是为讨论提供依据：
HRM in theory and practice--理论与实践中的人力资源管理
The links between HRM and business strategy development, competitiveness and human resource development
The role of HRM and HRD in service quality.-- 人力资源管理和人力资源开发在服务质量中的作用。
Making quality improvements was once thought to be the sole responsibility of specialists (quality engineers, product designers, and process engineers). Today, developing quality across the entire firm can be an important function of the human resource management (HRM) department. A failure on HRM's part to recognize this opportunity and act on it may result in the loss of TQM implementation responsibilities to other departments with less expertise in training and development. The ultimate consequence of this loss is an ineffective piecemealing of the TQM strategy. Thus, HRM should act as the pivotal change agent necessary for the successful implementation of TQM.
HRM can act as senior management's tool in implementing TQM in two fundamental ways. First, by modeling the TQM philosophy and principles within its departmental operations, the HR department can serve as a beachhead for the TQM process throughout the company. Second, the HR department, with senior management's support, can take the TQM process company-wide by developing and delivering the long-term training and development necessary for the major organizational culture shift required by TQM. The HR department also has major strengths in terms of recruitment, selection, appraisal, and reward system development to institutionalize a quality-first orientation. An appreciation of the capabilities of HRM to model and institutionalize TQM begins with an understanding of the TQM philosophy.
The TQM Philosophy—全面质量管理体系
Implementing a total quality management system has become the preferred approach for improving quality and productivity in organizations. TQM, which has been adopted by leading industrial companies, is a participative system empowering all employees to take responsibility for improving quality within the organization. Instead of using traditional bureaucratic rule enforcement, TQM calls for a change in the corporate culture, where the new work climate has the following characteristics:
An open, problem-solving atmosphere--一个开放的，解决问题的氛围
Participatory design making
Trust among all employees (staff, line, Workers, managers)
A sense of ownership and responsibility for goal achievement and problems solving
Self-motivation and self-control by all Employees.
The TQM approach involves more than simply meeting traditional rejection rate standards. The end result of TQM is the efficient and effective use of all organizational processes in providing consistent quality at a competitive price. The TQM philosophy is a long-term endeavor that links people and processes in a system that alters the corporate culture to become one where quality is the core aspect of business strategy.
In cultivating the TQM philosophy, strategy implementation must involve a focused effort on the part of every employee within the organization. It cannot be applied successfully on a piecemeal basis. TQM requires that management, and eventually every member of the organization, commit to the need for continual improvement in the way work is accomplished. Business plans, strategies, and management actions require continual rethinking in order to develop a culture that reinforces the TQM perspective. The challenge is to develop a robust culture where the idea of quality improvement is not only widely understood across departments, but becomes a fundamental, deep-seated value within each function area as well.
HRM as a Role Model for TQM人力资源管理相当于全面质量管理体系的榜样
HRM can jumpstart the TQM process by becoming a role model. This means that HRM has two specific tasks: "Serving our customers, and making a significant contribution to running the business." This emphasis on customer oriented service means that the HR department must see other departments in the firm as their customer groups for whom making continuing improvements in service becomes a way of life. In their efforts to achieve total quality management, HRM can demonstrate commitment to TQM principles by soliciting feedback from its internal customer groups on current HR services. HRM should include suggestions from its customers in setting objective performance standards and measures. In other words, there are a number of specific TQM principles that the HR department can model.
2. Importance of employees in successfully delivering employer branding and the role of employee training and development. --
Human Resource Planning
This process has developed from what was previously called manpower planning.
Human resource planning is concerned with matching the organizational demand for quantity and quality of employees with the available supply.
The demand is derived from current and forecast levels of company operations.
The supply side consists of human resources available both internally and externally.
The planning exercise outlines the manpower needs of the organization and provides useful information for a number of activities e.g. selection, training and rewards.
ÂŸ Prior to recruitment, job analysis is undertaken. This is a process whereby the work to be undertaken by an employee is closely examined, and results in the preparation of a job description.
ÂŸ Then a specification is produced of the attributes a suitable candidate will need in order to perform the job.
ÂŸ The most appropriate means of recruitment, e.g. newspapers, advertisements, employment agencies or job centre, is specified with the intention of attracting suitable applications.
ÂŸ A variety of techniques such as the application form, interviews, tests and assessment centres, are available to select the best candidate from a pool of applicants. It is likely that a shortlist of applicants will be produced as a first step in the selection process.
ÂŸ Some measure, i.e. criteria relating to the ideal candidate, is used to assist in making a selection decision.
ÂŸ This is a technique, of assessing the performance of employees against agreed targets. This commonly takes the form of an interview following the completion of forms that facilitate assessment of achievement in the period since the last interview.
ÂŸ Performance can be measured against criteria set previously. The outcome could signal the need for training or in some cases remuneration.
ÂŸ This is a process concerned with establishing what type of training is required and who should receive it.
ÂŸ Training is coupled with development, is apparent when organizations plan the progression of key employees through the company, in which case an attempt is made to reconcile organizational needs with individuals career development.
ÂŸ This covers wide area incorporating rates to pay, trade union involvement where appropriate and other factors such as the use of job evaluation in the determination of rates of pay, methods of calculating the pay and fringe benefits.
ÂŸ This could be considered as collective bargaining, grievance procedures and employment legislation.
ÂŸ In collective bargaining the personnel/industrial relations specialist normally prepares and presents the employer's case in the negotiations with the employees representative ( trade union representative ).
ÂŸ With respect to grievance procedures, the personnel manager could be involved in preparing and implementing those procedures and be actively involved to settle disputes that fall outside the collective bargaining process.
ÂŸ The personnel specialist is likely to be called on to give on matters connected with employment legislation , and is expected to be conversant with the practical issues relating to the applicability of the relevant legal provisions.
Employee Communications and participation
ÂŸ This could amount to taking on broad activities in connection with communicating relevant information to employees, and arranging for ways in which employees can participate in the
process of the company.--公司流程
ÂŸ In certain circumstances counselling could become part of the service.
ÂŸ Increasingly, participation also incorporates aspects of Japanese management practices, such as quality circles and team work, in which operates take over certain aspects of production control such as quality control. In this way employees are involved in decision making that affects their work.
ÂŸ A record of the employee is likely to be kept centrally by the personnel department. This could contain information provided in the original application, with subsequent additions to reflect qualifications and experience gained, achievements and potential. The employee record could provide a useful input to personnel decisions.
ÂŸ Records are normally computerised and can be used as part of the human resource planning process.
Ways to improve Performance Management--推进绩效管理的方法
ÂŸ Seek recommendations. In order to improve their performance it is important for employees to actively seek suggestions regarding specific duties and projects they have responsibility for in order to improve the final product or outcome. No one person knows everything. Getting ideas and input may provide a new point of view not previously considered or shed light on an unresolved or unseen issue or problem.
ÂŸ Ask for feedback. Don't wait until annual review time to collect feedback on performance. Employees should ask their supervisor and others in their sphere of influence for feedback on a more frequent basis and feedback should provide more than just a critique of the quality and quantity of work or how well someone interacts with others. Employees should get feedback on things such as verbal and non-verbal style, how others perceive their communication and presentation skills, or how well they manage projects.
ÂŸ Take steps to improve. Track the feedback received and create an action plan on what changes need to be implemented including specific suggestions on how to improve as provided by those who gave the feedback. Review and take action on this information on a regular basis. Note improvement based on continuing feedback and input from supervisors and coworkers.
ÂŸ Reciprocate. Be willing to assist others by providing feedback to them while developing good communication skills. Some people are not comfortable receiving feedback. It will take time to develop a level of trust that allows co-workers to share, so be sensitive to feelings and direct the feedback at a specific skill, not at the individual. Instead of telling someone they talk too much, consider suggesting that they work on their communication skills by getting to the point more quickly.
Armstrong M - A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (Kogan Press, 2003)
Beardwell I and Holden L - Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach
(Prentice Hall, 2003) ISBN: 0273679112
Belbin M - Team Roles at Work (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) ISBN: 0750626755
Bratton J and Gold J - Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2003) ISBN: 0333993268
Mullins L - Management and Organisational Behaviour (Prentice Hall, 2004)
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