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Impact Of Globalization On Education Economics Essay
“全球化”代表二战以来世界关系的不断扩大和加强。它现在已经达到人人都被发生在它的国家之外的事件所触及的一个阶段。国际活动现在限制任何独立的国家行动。在美国，欧洲和日本的公司，现在可以印度或新西兰生产产品，外包到爱尔兰和墨西哥，并在世界范围内销售而不用担心长距离或文化差异（Martin Carnoy 2005）。
根据 Noel F. McGinn（1999），全球化涉及以下彼此交互流程：
"Globalization" represents the progressive widening and strengthening of the world relations since the Second World War. It has now reached a stage where no one is untouched by the events happening outside its state boundaries. International events are now restricting any independent national action. Companies in the United States, Europe, and Japan can now produce a product in India or New Zealand, outsource clerical work to Ireland or Mexico, and sell worldwide without being concerned about the long distances or the variety of cultures involved (Martin Carnoy 2005).
According to Noel F. McGinn (1999), globalization involves the following flows which interact with each other:
People within and across state borders as labour, refugees, and tourists.
Information in the form of news, statistics, reports, etc.
New technologies such as that of communication, production, etc. that raise the living standards of the people.
Financial resources facilitated by the above mentioned factors.
Ideas circulated through television networks, films, music, books, etc.
Globalization can be regarded as a direct result of the spread of the European culture around the world via colonialisation. The current wave of globalization has had a profound effect on the economic and political structures of the world. Now, no nation has any control over the value of its currency or over the flow of capital in and out of the country. 'For the first time in human history, anything can be made anywhere and sold everywhere' (Rui Yang 2003).
Education enriches human lives and raises the standard of human wellbeing. Education has always been an important input for the economic and social progress of the world. It not only affects the productivity of a country and consequently its ability to compete internationally, but it is also important to attract foreign capital. Education has become the key to global trading success. Other important elements for a successful economy, such as infrastructure, efficient government, health of the citizens, etc. are also related to education in one way or the other (Frances Stewart, 1996).
Globalization is a phenomenon that has affected almost every sphere of the globe. The effects of globalization vary from being economical, social, political, cultural, and environmental. On one hand, globalization has shrunk the world, bringing people and nations closer to each other. On the other hand, it has strengthened the divisions by making the rich richer and the poor poorer. The magnitude of the effect of globalization is so huge that it has also affected the education all over the world. In my opinion, globalization is most likely to have an indirect effect on the world education systems by changing the environments in which these education systems work. Education, in modern times has become an industry. The focus has shifted from imparting knowledge and wisdom to making financial revenues. On one hand, globalization has increased the need and levels of education, on the other, it has also burdened many nations to provide sufficient quantity and quality of education. Globalization has made it possible for people from under privileged nations to access education even from their homes. But, at the same time has put up the pressure of information technology on such section of people which demands high financial investments. It has at one end broadened the horizon for the flow of wisdom, on the other has made people a slave of technology. It is therefore; very hard to say whether the impacts of globalization are positive or negative.
The creation of the National Education Systems in Europe (and later in the United States) was the first major impact of globalization on education. Following was the imposition of such systems on other nations by the colonial powers. The world at that time had been hit by a wave of "westernization" and was dependent on the external economic forces. Before 1945, all independent nations had similar systems of education with common goals, structure and contents. Most nations that gained their independence after 1945, tried to expand the education systems set up by their colonial masters. However, in reality, they did not make any significant changes. A few nations, e.g. the United Republic of Tanzania, tried to construct a unique system but later reverted back to the European models (Noel F. McGinn, 1997).
EFFECTS ON EDUCATION—对教育的影响
To meet with the global demands and conform to the international standards, higher education in the developing countries is now being integrated into the world community. The international nature of the "university" is expected to be affected strongly due to this transformation. Higher education has become a commercial commodity in which a global market is taking shape. The expansion of this market due to globalization is mainly motivated by economic factors. Managements believe that in order to survive and prosper in this globalized world, they must become customer-focussed business entity. Very few people in the business of higher education identify the difference between globalization and internationalization of the systems (Rui Yang, 2003).
At various forums, experts have been talking about how the education systems must change in order to attain a more "global" approach. Some emphasize on increasing the awareness about other cultures while others support the idea that knowledge and skill can make a nation "globally competitive".
THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS ON EDUCATION—教育的经济效益
A major impact of globalization on higher education is the use of economic standards as point of reference. Numbers (of graduates, grants, publications, etc.) are becoming sole indicators of the university achievements while educational values are being lost in the process. These tendencies have also created a divide among the more profitable subjects of applied sciences and technology, and those based on theoretical values, particularly of arts and humanities. It has also created institutional winners and losers, widening the gap between the very few elite universities and numerous 'mediocre' institutes. Successful economies are being building up by the symbiotic partnerships of universities and industry. Courses being taught rely heavily on the number of students enrolled and the financial back-up provided by the industry. Often, courses are cancelled if enough students do not enrol. Conversely, if many students are interested, any absurd course can be taught. The 'classroom' is losing its importance. Even the expectations of the students are changing. They expect lectures to be entertaining talk-shows rather than informative. Earlier, the professors professed, now they are just professionals, careerists, and entrepreneurs, as in the corporate sector. As Guy Neave puts it, "education is less part of social policy but is increasingly viewed as a subsector of economic policy" (Rui Yang, 2003).
Globalization has had its impact on the secondary level of education as well, i.e. the schools. Stakeholders, who earlier had no say in academic decision-making, are now making unreasonable demands that the schools are not able to meet. Today every school in the world is trying to fix up its existing education system to meet the global demands (Noel F. McGill, 1999). Students are now being exposed to latest technologies, such as the internet, at a very early age. Brad Pitt and Tom Cruise are the heroes for today's youngsters instead of Abraham Lincoln or Mahatma Gandhi. School students spend more hours on computers or in front of televisions than they spend with their books. Parents also expect the use of hi-tech equipments in classrooms in return of the high fees they pay.
CRISIS OF THE EDUCATION SECTOR—教育界的危机
Today, most governments are under a constant pressure of checking the growth of public spending on the education sector. They have to look for other resources to fund the expansion of their education systems. Despite the increase in the number of student enrolments, a general trend towards the reduction of the per capita funding to higher education under the impact of globalization has been observed. This has led to the current fiscal crisis of the education sector. The burden of funding this sector is being shifted on the shoulders of individuals. Many public universities and institutes are also depending upon non-governmental sources, such as student tuition and other fees, donations from alumni, payment from industrial sources in return of services being provided by the universities. The privatisation of the education sector, running parallel to the financial cuts, favours those who can afford the high fees involved. These defects of the system are putting the fate of universities on stake by ignoring the calibre of the graduates produced and the quality and output of the academic staff (Rui Yang, 2003).
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