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War of talent in the South Africa context
The background on the war of talent in the South Africa context is influenced by the following factors, the emigration of skilled employees, the oversupply of unskilled labour which relates to the lack of managerial and scarce skills and the labour laws regulating the South African work place (Labour Relations Act, Employment Equity Act, Basic Conditions of Employment Act, Skills Development Act, and the SA Constitution).
These factors lead to employers, trying to become the employer of choice (talent magnet) in attracting and retaining employees or alternatively developing and efficiently utilizing current existing employees' talents. The 'war on talent' then is based on the emigration of scares skills, compliance with the employment equity act, in that company needs to recruit previously disadvantaged individuals. Hence the element of a diversity recruitment strategy by organization. These employment statistics have to be submitted to the Labour Department where the department then looks at the equity plans submitted by the company versus current organogram profiles.
Retaining a competent diverse work force before and during a merger and acquisitions has become a challenge for most mergered organisations. While every organisation wants to be seen as diverse, the practical implementation of diversity has been elusive. Talent management on the other hand, has been difficult for organisation, as rewards have not matched existing talent, or the total focus on the individual employee.
Purpose of the study—研究目的
This study endeavours to develop a model for managing talent (retention), through diversity in organisations. The aim of this endeavour is to provide a literary framework from which talent management best practice can be based.
Road map through the essa--论文的技术路线
After introducing the topic, this essay provides literature review, in which diversity and diversity management are defined. In addition, talent and its management are also defined. The essay also tabulates some advantages of diversity in organisations. This is followed by factors involved diversity, after which enabling conditions for diversity are discussed. The paper then provides a diversity management model, in which the preconditions of diversity and talent management are detailed. The study ends with a conclusion and recommendations.
Roodt and Kotzé (2005:48-49) states that the international staff turnover and retention conducted by P-E Corporate services illustrated that the main reason for leaving an employer was more to career than to a company. This means that jobs are stepping stones to the next career path.
Hausknecht, Rodda and Howard (2008:3) conducted a study where the focus was on why employees chose to stay at a company, since there was not much research on this topic. Most research focuses on why employees leave the company. From the 12 retention factors that they had identified and utilized in their research, the following deductions were made; in general job satisfaction, extrinsic reward, constituent attachment, organizational commitment and organizational prestige. While for the high performers, advancement opportunity, and organizational prestige were the reasons for staying. Low performers extrinsic rewards were the reasons for staying.
This study illustrates the importance of differentiating amongst employees, when retention strategies are crafted.
Pless and Maak (2004) defines diversity is 'the mixture, assortment, variety and range of people and their characteristics'. This is the wide variety of characteristics that describe people as unique beings. Diversity and the management thereof, is about being aware and embracing the following factors: racial groups, gender differences, differences in religion and cultures, different levels of physical and mental ability, different talents, different sexual orientations, different lifestyles, different languages and people living with HIV/AIDS. According to the Mecklenburg County, diversity refers to the 'differences and similarities in people, and how this influences planning, designing, delivering and evaluating services'. Mecklenburg County further defines diversity as representing the 'uniqueness of individuals, groups and relationships'. This uniqueness reflects the differences and similarities in human attributes, values, beliefs, behaviors, orientations, norms and experiences.
Kujala and Pietilainen (2007: 142) argues that diversity management can be seen as a new organisational paradigm (Gilbert et al., 1999) where differences are recognised, valued and engaged (Pless & Maak, 2004). Diversity management aims to increase awareness of ethical questions related to differences in the workplace and to help managers engage in dialogic communication to solve complex moral issues. Practically, diversity can be defined as differences that can be associated with age, physical appearance, culture, job function or experience, learning styles, managerial background, expertise, ethnicity, personal style, gender and values.
Diversity management refers to the 'strategies and tactics used to harness the value of these differences and similarities to improve the performance of the organization and its employees' (Fleury, 1999). Fleury (1999) quotes Cox as defining diversity management as 'planning and implementing organisational systems and practices to manage people so that potential advantages of diversity are maximized'. She further defines it as adding value to the organisation (Fleury, 1999: 110).
Most organisations worldwide have diverse workforces only as a response to pressure from both internal and external groups (Sacht, 2008). Dass and Parker (1999: 68) argue that the adverse effect of assembling a diverse workforce as a response to pressure is that some form of pressure can reduce the needed diversity instead of increasing it. However, any match in the pressure exerted and the organisational strategic response is likely to improve organisational performance, while a mismatch may result in organisational costs. Therefore, Pless and Maak (2004: 130) suggest that diversity must be based on a culture of inclusion, in which norms, values, beliefs and expectations are the core in ensuring that organisations have a principle of recognition.
Using the principle of recognition stated above, Pless and Maak (2004: 131) posit that organisations should have inclusive diversity cultures, in which differences will be recognised while a common bond is sought.
The close relations between diversity management and skill have called for organisations to address diversity management simultaneously with talent management. Talent is defined as high performing individual workers as well as those with significant potential (Likierman & Ready, 2009). Likierman and Ready (2009) defines talent management as an 'integrated people processes focused on supporting the career development needs of individuals demonstrating superior performance and/or those assessed as having significant potential to contribute to the organisation's strategic objectives.' Supporting Likierman and Ready, Duttagupta (nd) regards talent management as 'the strategic management of the flow of talent through an organisation, whose purpose is to assure that the supply of talent is available to align the right people with the right jobs at the right time based on strategic business objectives.'
Diversity has different dimensions, which includes; time with an organization, lifestyle, social class, religion, education, language, nationality, economic status, job functions, physical abilities, thinking style, gender, race, culture, age, value, ethnicity, geographic origin.
Coupled with these factors on an individual level, an individual has a kaleidoscope, which includes, qualifications obtained, marital status, lifestyle (e.g. loves rugby or soccer or netball), extramural activities, religious affiliation, age (generation X, Y), health and personality type. This means that people are multidimensional (kaleidoscope), hence we should not pre-judge people, but rather extract what is relevant from the kaleidoscope.
5.1 Advantages of diversity—多样性的优点
Organisations are able to tap into a range of skills, cultures and experiences. These organisations can also have a great pool of talent from which to draw, while promoting productivity as a result of employee job satisfaction. Diversity can also develop and enhance creativity through the utilisation of all the employees optimally. In addition, diversity can build better relationships between employees. While managing diversity enables organisations to take advantage of different views, perspectives and contributions of their staff and learn from the differing views and contributions, diversity itself provides numerous perspectives, ideas, beliefs and work styles that can lead to creativity and innovation.
Based on its importance in improving performance, diversity management serves as a vital business process rather than a separate program or function. Therefore, diversity management must be integrated into the County's business policies and practices. In this way, diversity management must be regarded as a fundamental way of doing business, important to all employees. Diversity can also enable organisations to compete for the best talent, while competing more effectively in the marketplace by understanding the demands of a diverse customer base. As was stated before, it can further enhance the creativity and problem-solving effectiveness of work teams, and reduce costs associated with turnover, absenteeism, and lack of productivity (Cox & Blake, 1991).
A foundation for linking the diversity initiative to organisational results lies in the business strategy pursued by an organisation. Richard (2000), for example, argues that there is a positive relationship between racial diversity and firm performance in especially organisations pursuing a growth strategy. This is supported by findings from other research, which show that a diverse workforce offers several benefits to organisations entering new markets-for example, the added insight and cultural sensitivity that women and minorities provide (Cox, 1994). Unfortunately, for organisations that are in the process of downsizing, especially racial diversity may have a negative impact on the performance of an organisation.
Fleury (1999) regards diversity management as important due to its potential to attract and retain the best available talent in the labour market through its enhanced marketing efforts. With diversity management, problem solving is facilitated and organisational flexibility is enhanced (Fleury, 1999: 110).
5.2 What is involved in a diversity program?--多样性项目中设计到什么？
Diversity programs come in a variety of forms. The three components that are crucial to changing the composition of the workforce include efforts to recruit, retain, and develop employees from under- represented groups. Diversity programs also include attempts to promote diversity through developing external relationships with under-represented groups outside the organisation, including minority communities and clients. Additional components of diversity relate to efforts to communicate the rationale for diversity programs and to recognise and reward successes in achieving and maintaining diversity. In addition, the training component is the most common component and can consist of efforts to increase awareness of discrimination and prejudice and to improve behavioral skills of employees in relating to persons from other cultures. Furthermore, a crucial component of a diversity program can include the creation of internal structures to maintain the diversity program.
Diversity in organisations can be realised if there is a conscious endeavour for reciprocal understanding, in which cultures, values and viewpoints are not only understood, but also shared. The basis for this reciprocal understanding is the openness to get involved with people who hold different perspectives. It is an active attempt for organisations to show willingness to listen to other or divergent views with an aim of learning about those viewpoints. Pless and Maak (2004) argue that with open communication, employees will be able to recognise each other. They further point out that for the recognition to happen, there needs to be trust, integrity and an intercultural moral point of view in which stereotypes are avoided and commonalities sought.
Research shows that a diverse workforce is possible once a work environment that is free from harassment based on gender, sex, race, religion, disability lifestyle, circumstances or class prevails. Furthering this argument, Pless and Maak (2004) regard communication and trust as the glue binding the diverse workforce together. They hold that by affording each employee contributions, equal rights for every employee will be realised.
5.3 Enabling conditions for a diverse workforce
5.3.1 Integration of cultures--文化整合
Cox (1991: 35) argues that diversity in the workplace can be made harmonious through the integration of cultures, which he terms 'acculturation'. He defines acculturation succinctly as the 'method by which cultural differences between the dominant culture and any minority culture groups are resolved or treated.' Of the many alternatives of acculturation, the best seems to be pluralism, in which both the minority and majority culture members adopt some norms of the other group (Cox, 1991: 35). With pluralism, members of the minority groups are allowed and encouraged to enact behaviours from their alternative culture as well as from the majority culture, thereby retaining some sense of identity as a minority group.
In order for pluralism to occur, organisations should initiate and constantly endeavour to be plural organisations. Plural organisations have heterogeneous membership and takes steps to be inclusive of persons from cultural backgrounds that differ from the dominant group (Cox, 1991). In the plural organisation, members of the minority groups are able to be integrated into informal networks; and Cox (1991) posits that this reduces discrimination and prejudicial attitudes.
Organisations should also attempt to tie the diversity strategy to business results in a realistic way. This is the foundation of a successful diversity initiative. The diversity strategy will guide decision making and build the business case for employees. Emphasizing the business rationale for diversity, as well as the intent of diversity initiatives to embrace all employees, will demonstrate fairness and equity and mitigate potential negative perceptions on the part of employees.
Some research has put much emphasis on the development of what Bennett and Bennett (2001) calls 'intercultural competence', which they argue is the ability to communicate effectively in cross-cultural situations and to relate appropriately in a variety of cultural contexts. Developing this kind of competence is usually a primary goal of diversity initiatives in organisations, where it is assumed to contribute to effective recruitment and retention of members of under-represented groups, management of a diverse workforce, productivity of multicultural teams, marketing across cultures, and to the development of a climate of respect for diversity in the organisation.
5.3.2 Coaching, mentoring, empowering and sponsoring—训练，指导，授权和赞助
Coaching is regarded as helping people to see and do things differently, with a hope that they would do them faster, better and more effectively. Coaching can enable an individual employee to have awareness, understanding, exploration and experimentation. These will help an employee take responsibility, get committed and hopefully take action. The primary role of coaching is to improve performance in a current role of the specific stage of an individual's career (Duttagupta, nd). With coaching, talent can be kept and maintained within the organisation.
Mentoring is defined as the process of developing and growing an individual for future roles. It is based on the perceived potential of a person and this can be realised in the foreseeable future. Mentoring mostly focuses on transferable competencies. Those to be mentored as usually seen as capable of exerting influence even upwards, and as having high innovative ability. They can provide solutions to challenges that organisations face. These individuals can adapt easily and can operate in a variety of different cultures. When they deal with usual situations, they apply their common sense. Individuals who can be mentored show a substantial amount of steadiness even under pressure and consistently show their ability to deliver (Duttagupta, nd). Mentoring helps organisations not only in developing talent, but also in managing and keeping it.
Empowering people involves establishing focused, productive independence of thinking and action within defined boundaries of interdependence in an organisation (Duttagupta, nd). According to Duttagupta (nd), sponsoring is about opening doors, removing blockages and penetrating unnecessary bureaucracy on behalf of talented people, so that they are brought to the attention of senior executives and other pivotal players in the organisation. The talented are therefore able to use their talents to make a contribution to the organisation.
Strong communication plan--较强的沟通计划
Communication and the planning thereof are essential in order that employees are kept up-to-date about business strategies to be followed. This communication often involves awareness training to educate employees about the business case and objectives of the diversity initiative. Training, however, is only part of an effective communication strategy. Discussing diversity in senior leadership addresses to employees including diversity issues as part of ongoing business review meetings, and recognising and rewarding managerial and employee efforts to leverage diversity are some of the strategies leaders can use to demonstrate active commitment and integrate diversity interventions into the business plan. Incorporating diversity issues into the daily business of the organisation, as opposed to a stand-alone initiative, will demonstrate senior leadership commitment and move the organisation toward a culture that truly embraces diversity.
5.3.4 Team-building and group process training--
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