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时间:2021-10-13 10:00 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本文主要讲述了在信贷危机的背景下,公司如何治理和监管。文章4分析了出现信贷危机的主要原因和解决措施。......

MBA作业:信贷紧缩背景下公司的治理和监管
Corporate governance and regulation during credit crunch

介绍
信贷紧缩在整个信贷可获得性中呈现的是一个递减趋势。它也可以被描述为一个从银行获得贷款的必要条件突然紧缩的现象。也被称为信贷危机,信贷危机通常是与减量的信贷可用性、公正的增量的官方利率相联系的。在这种性质的情况下,信贷和利率之间的联系已经隐式地改变,这样,要么信贷就很难得到官方一定的利率,或明显的信贷和利率之间的联系不再存在。
本文将检查在处理这场危机过程中,信贷紧缩的原因和公司治理及其制度的失败。
有许多因素影响了从银行突然限制贷款的可获得性。这些因素可能是货币政策中一个外生变更,减少银行贷款使用的抵押品价值,保护实施直接控制企业对银行信贷的政府,感知风险增加有关整个银行体系内的其他银行的偿付能力。
信贷危机带来的通常是连续的粗心和不当的贷款,导致了金钱放贷机构的不良损失和投资者无法偿还回来而留下巨额债务时的贷款。这些金钱借贷组织可能会因此减少贷款的可获得性,通过提高利率来提高获得信贷的成本。在某些情况下,由于之前的损失,即使他们愿意这样做,银行可能无法进一步贷款。

另一方面,信贷紧缩由市场上原来昂贵的资产价格降低而引起,因此危机由价格的崩溃而引起。

介绍——Introduction

A credit crunch is a decrement in the entire availability of credit or loans. It can also be described as an abrupt tightening of necessary conditions of acquiring a loan from the banks. Also known as credit crisis, credit crunch is usually associated with the decrement of the credit availability impartial of an increment in official interest rates. In situations of this nature, the link between availability of credit and interest rates has altered implicitly, such that either credit becomes hard to get at a certain official interest rate, or an apparent link between credit availability and interest rates ceases to be there.

This paper is going to examine the causes of the credit crunch and the failure of corporate governance and its regulations in handling the crisis.

信贷危机的主要原因——Major causes of the credit crunch

There are many factors that influenced the abrupt limitation of the availability of loans from banks. Some of these factors could be an exogenous alteration in monetary conditions, reduction in the collateral value used by banks for loan securing the imposition on direct controls of credit on banks by the corporate government and, an increased risk perception concerning other banks' solvency within the entire banking system (Buchanan 2008, p94).
A credit crisis is usually brought about by a continuous period of careless and improper lending which causes adverse losses for money lending organizations and leave investors with large debts when the ones lent money fail to repay back. These money lending organizations may consequently reduce the availability of loans, and raise the cost of obtaining a credit by increasing rates of interest. In some instances, the banks may fail to lend further, even if they are willing to do so due to prior losses.
On the other hand, credit crunch is also caused by a decline in market prices of formerly expensive assets and hence the crunch results from the collapse of price. As a consequence, the investors and entrepreneurs who arrived late in the market become bankrupt.

信贷危机对监管环境的影响——Impact of credit crunch on the regulatory environment

The global credit crisis would not have come to pass without the powerful hand of the irresponsible authorities of the corporate government. Professional economists gave a prior warning to the corporate government in the year 2007 about the foreseeable coming of the monster, but the government overlooked this warning. The entire crunch began with new century, dedicated in sub-prime credit, filed for insolvency in April 2007, which resulted in a collapse of many banks and financial institutions across the whole world.
As Savage (2008, p49) puts it, after the credit crunch has been experienced, various federal Reserves put emphasis on altering the monetary policies to secure financial institutions and banks from the crunch. The government of the United Kingdom announced an impermanent in the level of value Added Tax to 15 percent from 17.5 percent. The bank of England reduced interest rates 4.5 percent to 3 percent. This is the lowest level ever since the year 1955. The government of the United Kingdom revealed its plans to invest billions of taxpayers' money into three banks of the UK in one of the biggest nationalization of the United Kingdom.
Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), HBOS and Lloyds TSB will get a total amount of £37 billions invested in them. The government of the United Kingdom commenced a bail out schedule by extending £400 billion to the eight largest banks of the United Kingdom. The credit crunch has had an adverse impact on the Federal and corporate government policies.

信贷紧缩对借贷的影响——The borrowing implications on credit crunch

The current global credit crunch has had an impact on job lay offs around the globe especially in the developed economies like United Kingdom, Japan and United states. As addressed earlier one of the major causes of the crunch was excessive lending of loans by the banks. The corporate governance also contributed to this due to the imposition of direct control of the credit by the government. This implies that the banks and other financial corporations ensnared individuals to borrow loans with interest rates that were very low.
Seemingly there was 24 hours loan approval, payment of instalments that lasted over one year and many others. Such were the bad policies that were laid by banks to attract as many customers as possible many of who were from the housing industry. The banking legitimacy never bothered to check the liability of the customer to give a loan, whether the customer was in a position to pay back the loan.
According to Cooper (2008, p138), it is becoming apparent how individuals have been mortgaging the future of their children to fund their today, both in the exploitation of the finite resources of the world and financially. Considering the previous experiences of financial crisis that was felt within the last millennium, it can be said that the process of borrowing from banks will not be an easy task.
The need of restoring capital ratios and recovering of the incurred losses implies that those willing to borrow will have flexibilities that are less, less control, increase in interest rates and fees will increase to a historical level (Hooley 2002, p79). The borrowers will face a rough time as the banks will require a strict scrutiny of their documents before getting loans. Even as Mr. Tim Rawlinson, who works at Fox Chase Bank in Blue Bell as a vice president of consumer lending puts it, customers with enough credit may be required to raise more cash to get a house or car down payment. And they will also have to go through lengthy procedures to prove their income.

信贷紧缩对贷款的影响——Lending implications on credit crunch

The current global credit crunch is due to irregularities by financial institutions and banks in offering loans to the borrowers without appropriate scrutiny of their valuable documents and confirming their liabilities. Surplus liquidity within the banks was the root cause of excessive lending by financial institutions to lure many customers. In an attempt to get more customers, they provided rewarding schemes which were immediately grabbed by the seekers. Financial crisis could not be evaded in the view of the boom in real estate marketing in the past few years which brought about irregular mortgages, unchecked loans without assessing the assets or income of the customer.
This encouraged customers to involve in frauds and accounts leveraging. A good number of loans were confirmed on house mortgage which also encouraged the booming of the real estates all over the globe. Buying and selling of estates were on spurge, with the rates remaining extremely high.
As far as the statistics of the bank of England are concerned, total net lending to customers within the month of January last year was £1.1 billion. This was low as compared £2.1 billion that was lent to customers in December 2008. Due to this figures go from the bank of England, it can be seen that the lending of money by banks is drastically reducing due to the current credit crunch. Strict measures have been taken by banks before loaning any customer.
In a credit crunch, banks and other financial institutions cease lending money and begin hoarding cash due to the fear for mortgage defaults and insolvency. It makes the banks charge higher interest rates and only consider safe loans. For an economy that had been depending on easy borrowed money, a credit crunch brings problems to countries that require loans to carry on with their business plans. According to one economist in the UK is that the economy will slow to a halt if the consumers contracts and ceases depositing or spending money (Reisman 2003, p158).
It is all about the manner in which consumers are going to apply for, accept and make use of credit provided by various financial institutions and the manner in which these institutions are rapidly altering their credit policies. As for how it all began, many economists will blame it on the market of sub-prime mortgage.  

本文标签: credit crunc收益率

[essay抄袭率95%挂科]MBA作业:信贷紧缩背景下公司的治理和监管https://www.0592w.com/ESSAY/16134.html

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