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时间:2021-10-16 00:00 来源: Essay代写

摘要:人力资源管理(HRM)的概念已经严重的争论在文学和应用越来越多的就业部门组织内。人力资源管理的历史可以概括......


这篇文献综述是基于人力资源管理(HRM)从这方面这我想发展我的研究然后制定一个具体的研究问题,我就可以写一个完整的报告。初审看人力资源管理作为一个整体的理论,围绕这一主题,研究看下。具体地说,我想看看如何在人力资源管理结构工作运用在旅游行业里,特别是英国一家主要的度假公司和关注人力资源管理如何激励员工的业务,如在客户服务部门的各个方面。然而,实现这个我必须先看看人力资源管理作为一个课题来为我的项目开始作为背景研究。
This literature review is based on Human Resource Management (HRM) and from this I want to develop my research to formulate a specific research question which I will then be able to write a full report on.  The initial review looks at HRM as a whole and the theories that surround this, often over-looked, subject.  Specifically, I want to look at how the HRM structure works within the tourism industry, especially looking at a major British holiday company and focussing on how HRM motivate their employees in various aspects of the business such as the customer service department.  However, to achieve this I must first look at HRM as a topic to get the background research for my project to begin.

 

Human Resource Management in the Tourism Industry旅游业的人力资源管理


As a direct result of new and more sophisticated technology becoming available to us, businesses are increasingly growing to such an extent that they develop into a global concern. This means that the role of Human Resource Management has become very important within businesses, but it is still looked upon as a lower department.  However, the concept of Human Resource Management (HRM) has been heavily debated in literature and is used more increasingly within employment sector organisations. The history of HRM could be summarised as it being developed initially from work in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s and was created from several interrelated sources and since then the concept has been spread from the USA, into Europe and eventually Australasia.

There is no formal definition of HRM because different companies imply different definitions from various evidential sources. Basically, HRM can be defined as a range of circumstances that affect the employment and contribution of people, against the criteria of coherence and appropriateness (Brewster, 1994). However, Kirkbride (1994) suggested that the use of the term HRM gives the general sense of the policies, procedures and processes involved in the management of people in various work environments. Bratton and Gold (1999) also noted that a definition of the subject matter under which HRM covers would help to analyse and understand the HRM practices. They also defined HRM the subject as:

"...That part of the management process that specialises in the management of people in work organisations. Human Resource Management emphasises that employees are the primary resource for gaining a sustainable and competitive advantage, and that human resource activities need to be integrated within the corporate strategy, and that human resource specialists help organisations to meet both the efficiency and equity objectives..."

Mead (1998) states that the key terms in HRM literature are strategic focus. This meant that the need for human resource policies and practices had to be consistent with the overall business strategy, allowing the individual sections of a HRM package to reinforce each other. This should particularly emphasise teamwork, flexibility, employee involvement and organisational commitment. This, however, is a completely opposite message to the traditional demands on the human resource systems of countries like USA where there is a collective bargaining arrangement from both the employers and the policy-makers.

Therefore, the product market environment of the 1980s changed this situation so that the traditional demands would still be met, but at the same time the human resource management system would also meet their new demands at the level of the individual employee and throughout the entire organisation (Beaumont, 1993).  The Harvard Business School approach to strategic HRM suggests that the need for all the people involved with the business organisation, such as the employees, their union, the customers, etc., should be taken into account when considering any organisational arrangements, and making 'employee influence' one of the leading policy areas in their attempt to develop a pro-active, strategic and broad-based HRM orientation in each individual organisation or department. The terms and content have changed considerably through the 1980s and 1990s, with a greater emphasis now being placed on the financial, communication and problem-solving activities. (Beaumont, 1993).

Again, Bratton and Gold (1999) also stated that HRM could be described as the organisation's valued assets, emphasising the commitment of employees as a means of competitive advantage, and therefore creating calculative, quantitative and strategic managerial aspects of managing the workforce in a rational and humane way.


HRM Practices人力资源管理实践

本文标签: 人力资源

[美国学校申请essay]Human resource Management人力资源管理ESSAYhttps://www.0592w.com/ESSAY/16235.html

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