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Brief History Of Greece Economics Essay
The people of Greece were one of the earliest civilizations. Greece still has many ancient ruins, some over 4000 years old. Greece also has many medieval churches. This makes Greece a very popular tourist area. Greece is also well known for its sculptures, paintings, pottery, poetry and playwriting.
GREECE is considered the birthplace of European civilization, dating back over 5000 years. Many of the ancient ruins date back over 4000 years, with some caves showing signs of life over 10,000 years ago. The ancient Greek people may have come from northern Africa.
Ancient Greece produced many philosophers and scholars, such as Socrates and Plato. These Greeks contributed significantly to the current culture. They created the first democratic government, discovered many scientific principles, and created mathematics. The Greeks also contributed to the artistic community with Homer, who had wrote the Iliad and The Odyssey, and other artisans creating sculptures, paintings, pottery, poetry and playwriting.
Competitive sports were a major part of Greek life. The first Olympic Games were held in Greece in 776 BC.
The ancient Greeks did not have a strong, unified military force. This made them an easy target for other invading people. In ancient times, Greece was conquered by the Romans. Others controlled Greece at various times. In the 15th century, the Turks invaded Greece and ruled for about 400 years. The Greeks finally got their independence in the early 1800s.
Greece is located in southern Europe, forms an irregular-shaped peninsula in the Mediterranean with two additional large peninsulas projecting from it: the Chalcidice and the Peloponnese.
The Greek islands are generally subdivided into two groups, according to location:
The Ionian Islands (including Corfu, Cephalonia, and Leucas) west of the mainland
The Aegean islands (including Euboea, Samos, Chios, Lesbos, and Crete) to the east and south.
North-central Greece, Epirus, and western Macedonia are all mountainous. The main chain of the Pindus Mountains extends from northwest Greece to the Peloponnese.
Greece has more than 2,000 islands, of which about 170 are inhabited; some of the easternmost AEGEAN islands lie just a few miles off the Turkish coast
Total: 131,940 sq km
land: 130,800 sq km
water: 1,140 sq km
Major cities in Greece are: Capital--Athens. Greater Athens (pop. 3,566,060), Iraklion (137,711), municipality of Thessaloniki (363,987), municipality of Athens (772,072), Greater Thessaloniki (1,057,825), Piraeus (175,697), Greater Piraeus (466,065), Patras (171,616), Iraklion (137,711), Larissa (126,076)
The Greek landscape is conspicuous not only for its rugged beauty but also for its complexity and variety. Three elements dominate: the sea, the mountains, and the lowland. The southernmost part of mainland Greece, the Peloponniso peninsula, connects to the mainland only by the narrow isthmus at the head of the Gulf of Korinthiakos (Corinth). Greece’s mountainous terrain covers some four-fifths of the country. A series of mainland Mountain chains running northwest-southeast enclose narrow parallel valleys and numerous small basins that once held lakes. only about one-fifth of the country’s land area, the lowland has played an important role in the life of the country.
Rocky highland areas of Greece, which are characterized by their limestone formations, the soil is thin and relatively poor. The valley areas contain clay like soil known as terra rosa, reddened earth that originates from the residue of limestone rocks. These areas are adequate for farming. The most fertile regions, however, are along coastal plains and beside rivers. The clay and loam soils that predominate there may even require drainage prior to cultivation.
Irrigated land: 14,220 sq km
Climate: Temperate: - mild, wet winters; Hot, dry summers
Most of Greece has a mild climate. Summers are warm and dry, particularly in the southern coastal areas. Rain is heavy during the winter months, with some mountain areas getting snow.
Greece is mountainous and rocky terrain, with the occasional plain. The Pindus Mountains start in northern Greece and stretch south to the Gulf of Patra. In the southern part of Greece are the Peloponnesus Mountains.
About 20% of Greece is made up of islands. Crete is a large island located in the Mediterranean Sea. It is a popular tourist area for its beautiful mountains, coastline, and many ancient ruins. Most of the people in Greece live along with Coast or along rivers and harbors
Greece is a parliamentary republic. The current constitution, introduced in 1975 following the collapse of the 1967–74 military dictatorship, initially gave considerable powers to the president, but revisions to the constitution in 1986 made presidential powers largely ceremonial. The president, who is the head of state, is elected by the unicameral Hellenic Parliament (Vouli) and may serve two five-year terms.
The Greek system of government is highly centralized, and the powers of local governments are severely limited by their inability to raise revenue; decentralization was one of the platforms of the constitutional amendments of 2001.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing:
Greece’s agricultural potential is hampered by poor soil, inadequate levels of precipitation, a landholding system that has served to increase the number of unproductive smallholdings, and population migration from the countryside to cities and towns. Less than one-third of the land area is cultivable, with the remainder consisting of pasture, scrub, and forest. Only in the plains of Thessalia, Makedonia, and Thraki is cultivation possible on a reasonably large scale. There corn (maize), wheat, barley, peaches, tomatoes, cotton and tobacco are grown.Other crops grown in considerable quantities are olives, grapes, melons, potatoes, and oranges, all of which are exported to other EU countries. Greece has been exporting hothouse-grown vegetables to northern Europe during the winter. Greek wine, including the resin-flavoured retsina, has been produced primarily for domestic consumption, but by the 1990s Greece was producing wines of higher quality for the world market. Sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, and chickens are raised for export and local consumption.
Although inefficient, Greek agriculture has benefited substantially from EU subsidies, and there are many signs of growing rural prosperity. In general, however, the importance of the agricultural sector to the economy is diminishing.
Forests, mostly state-owned, cover approximately one-fifth of the land area, but they are prone to major forest fires. Forest products make no significant contribution to the economy.Greece’s extensive coastline and numerous islands have always supported intensive fishing activity. However, overfishing and the failure to conserve fish stocks properly, a problem throughout the Mediterranean, have reduced the contribution of fishing to the economy.
Transportation and telecommunications
In the middle of the 20th century all the country’s villages become accessible to wheeled traffic and linked to the national electricity grid. There are no navigable rivers and only one waterway, the Korinthiakós (Corinth) Canal, which divides the Pelopónnisos from mainland Greece. Although the canal significantly shortens the sea route from the Italian ports to piraeus(the port of Athens), it has never fulfilled the economic expectations of its builders, because of its shallow draft and narrow width. There are also major ports at Patras and Thessaloníki.
Railway construction began in the 1880s and, given the rugged train of the country, involved some difficult feats of engineering. Today the extensive railway system includes a narrow-gauge railway network in the Pelopónnisos. A program to modernize the railway system with the aid of EU funding commenced in the mid-1990s. Public transport in the Athens metropolitan area is heavily dependent on an often overcrowded and sometimes unreliable bus network. Much of Athens is serviced by the Metro; construction of that subway system began in the 1990s but proceeded relatively slowly, as the digging unearthed a treasure trove of antiquities. More subway lines are planned for the Metro, which is supplemented by a small suburban railroad network linking the northern suburb of Kifisiá with the port of Piraeus.
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