• 20年专注海外留学生essay代写

  • 50000+留学生essay代写首选品牌

  • 正规教育机构教你怎么写essay范文

当前位置: essay代写网 > ESSAY >

时间:2021-10-20 20:19 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本文是一篇加拿大留学生写的环境与经济发展方面的essay,热带森林成为人类砍伐的目标,这一开发过程是对热带雨林......

热带森林逐渐被人类转变成其他土地资源进行开发使用,这一开发过程是对热带雨林的一种破坏,对当地人们甚至是全球人类的生活都会带来影响。联合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织)将采伐森林定义为“对树木长期的采伐,树冠覆盖率达到低于最低底线10%的程度,导致了森林土地以9.4%的进度开始退化。(FRA 2000, p.24) 然而森林采伐在某一程度上来说也是经济发展带来的不可避免的副作用,森林覆盖率减少,给子孙后代带来危害。被破坏的绝大多数森林主要出现在世界三大热带雨林地区:非洲、亚洲和南美洲,后者在世界上是森林覆盖率达到48%的热带雨林而60%的土地已被砍伐(Hansen et al 2009)。导致这些数据出现的原因有很多,经济上的发展和政治的实施对全球变暖有很大的影响,这使本土森林居民的生活也遭受困难。
 
The unnecessary conversion of tropical forests to other land uses is a damaging process that affects humanity on both a local and global level. This deforestation is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as "...the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below the minimum 10% threshold," and was responsible for the 9.4% degradation in the earth's forest cover between 1990-2000 (FRA 2000, p.24). While some degree of deforestation is an inevitable side-effect of economic development, to degrade forests beyond the optimal rate harms future generations. The vast majority of the damage occurs within the world's three main tropical regions, Africa, Asia and South America, the latter of which is host to 48% of the world's rainforests and 60% of global deforestation (Hansen et al 2009). These figures are concerning for many reasons ranging from the economic and political implications of global warming to the everyday hardships suffered by indigenous forest dwellers.
 
On a micro level, rainforests act as atmospheric quality regulators by absorbing rainwater and releasing water vapour during dry periods. This helps avoid flooding and soil erosion during the stormy seasons and also helps control regional and foreign climates countries, which can also be affected by rainwater from rainforests. According to The Prince's Rainforest Project: “The Amazon releases 20billion tonnes of moisture every day helping to water crops thousands of miles away,” (2009, p.4). Tropical forests are also home to around 50 million indigenous people (Rainforest Foundation, 2009) whose livelihoods depend on both timber and non-timber forest products, such as fruit, oils and medicine. As well as acting as a regulator of groundwater and provider of various products, rainforests also act as a receptacle for CO2 ; deforestation can directly or indirectly increase net global greenhouse gas emissions. (Fearnside & Laurance, 2000). An example of a direct effect of deforestation is the phenomenon of ‘slash and burn' agriculture, the temporary cutting and burning of forest land for shifting cultivation, which creates CO2. Indirect effects depend on the land use, e.g. forestry for cattle ranching or paddy fields will lead to an increase in methane. While it is often the developing countries of the world's tropical regions that suffer the direct externalities of these practices, the cost of climate change is imposed on all countries (Hanley et al, 2001, p.220). Rainforests are also incredibly biodiverse, and are home to some 6 million different species, 99% of which have yet to be studied (The Prince's Rainforest Project, 2009, p.22).
 
There are many causes of deforestation, which we can split into two categories; proximate and fundamental causes. Proximate causes are the obvious reasons for which forests need to be cleared: logging, non-timber product harvesting, agriculture or for livestock space. Fundamental causes, as observed by Panayotou (1995, p.34) are, imperfections inherent in the market system, including ill-defined or absent property rights, high transaction costs and a failure of the market system to reflect the true value of preservation. A second fundamental cause is the competition for space. For many, rising populations coupled with high poverty rates are key causes of deforestation as governments with growing populations and trade deficits are likely to use forests for revenue rather than explore the benefits of preservation (Perman, 2003, p.616). These economic disincentives to preserve are to blame for the excessive levels of deforestation we are seeing.
 
While most of the literature points towards wasteful levels of deforestation across the tropical regions, forest conversion can be efficient to an extent. It makes economic sense for a forest to be mined just up until the prices are high enough to rationalize the planting and sustainable management of new forests (Mendelsohn, 1994, p.750). In other words, the optimal rate of forest conversion occurs when the marginal benefits of deforestation (md), for either agriculture or timber harvesting, equal the marginal benefits of preservation (mp). Since the benefits of preservation are unlimited, we must divide by the discount rate, r for (mp/r). The benefits of preservation can then be split into two components, global, (mpG/r) and local benefits (mpL/r).
 
 
This is optimality is shown in figure 1 below at the point X*, where the two marginal benefit curves intersect. If global benefits are not accounted for, i.e. without international intervention, the equilibrium is lower down at X**as only the local benefits are taken into account. As with other public goods, there is little incentive for a country to pay a share of the costs when it can enjoy the benefits for free.
 
The international community must agree to pay the tropical nation a sum equal to or greater than the area abc, which is the tropical nation's loss of benefits (net costs). The area dgef represents the global benefits of preservation enjoyed by other countries. Of course, as with any open access good, a lack of property rights means there is a temptation to reap the benefits of preservation without paying a share of the costs as it would be impossible to stop free-riders from enjoying the benefits. Where there is a problem of free-riders, there is a disincentive for forest-owning nations to bear the costs of preservation when they could quite easily transform forest land into agriculture or infrastructure for revenue. While these profits are immediately visible, forest clearing may not always be the most economically sound solution, as the global benefits of sustainable forestry far outweigh private benefits from harvesting. A study of forest clearing in Malaysia showed that where unsustainable logging techniques were employed, the global benefits from foregone flood protection and non-timber products etc, outweighed private benefits. There was a total economic value loss of around 14% ($1,800/ha) when the forest was unsustainably managed (Kumari, 1994). It is up to the governments of these nations to implement policies which will control the incentives encountered when forests are cleared (Hanley et al, 2001, p.231).
 
The problem of absent property rights is recognized as one of the main causes of forest degradation and since many tropical forest-owning nations tend to be underdeveloped countries with economies relying on agriculture, this provides further impetus for forest clearance (Barbier, 2001 p.156). These agriculture-intensive economies provide poor farmers with few economic opportunities, forcing them to clear forest land at the margin for subsistence agriculture (Rudel & Roper, p.56). The national debts typical of developing countries coupled with a devaluation in currency will also encourage deforestation as governments will subsidise forest clearing activity in order to increase, now more profitable, exports to steady the trade balance. (Kimsey, 1991). This ‘immiserization' model of deforestation emphasises the importance of population growth and the resulting actions of poor individuals and can be applied to small tropical nations such as the those in Africa, where over half of the deforestation is carried out by impoverished farmers in order to meet their subsistence needs (The Prince's Rainforest Project). But it is not just rising populations and poverty levels that cause deforestation, many macro-agents, such as private investors or governments can determine the rate of deforestation by investing capital to harness a forest's economic potential.
 
The Environmental Kuznets Curve identifies an inverse u-shaped relationship between GNP/capita and environmental disamenities in developing countries (Koop & Tole, 1996, p.232). In the deforestation case, as GNP/capita increases, deforestation will also increase up until a threshold point, after which, it will fall as GNP continues to increase. Rudel and Roper identified an EKC-type relationship between GNP levels and levels of deforestation as shown in figure 2. Initially at point A, GNP is low and deforestation is due to poor farmers being forced to practice subsistence agriculture. As GNP rises, the curve slopes downwards, indicating a drop in deforestation levels, due to an improvement in economic opportunities for peasant farmers. Between points B and C, the relationship becomes positive, this time as a result of private investment and government subsidies for forest-clearing activity. After point C, GNP continues to rise but we can see a steep downward-sloping in the curve, indicative of a wealthier nation's demand for forest preservation. After the threshold point of GNP as been passed, the country's economy, being less agriculture-intensive, allows poor farmers more labour opportunities in urban areas (Rudel & Roper, 1997, p.61).
 
There have been a number of measures taken to curb the currently high deforestation rates in developing countries, the most effective of which is the system of debt-for nature swaps. This scheme involves the swapping of a developing country's foreign debt in return for forest preservation on behalf of the creditor. There is increasing pressure on developed countries to seek economically sustainable methods of production and equally increasing pressure on developing countries to repay foreign debts due to rising world interest rates. Debt-swapping agreements allow developed countries to effectively pay for the preservation and sustainable management methods of developing countries. This not only benefits both parties but addresses the problem of missing markets by reflecting the true global value of forest protection. Other policies for tacking deforestation include ecotourism, which gives tourists from the developed world a chance to see preserved rainforests or other protected areas of the natural world. Displaying the preserved land brings in much more revenue than using it for crop plantations (Friends of the earth).
 

本文标签: 加拿大essay热带雨林过度采伐

[英文essay代写价格]加拿大留学生对热带雨林的过度采伐环境学essayhttps://www.0592w.com/ESSAY/16373.html

essay辅导替代essay代写-正规代写机构教你怎么写essays范文-Essay写作格式网官方推荐

99.99%的用户同时也查看了:

[英文essay代写价格]加拿大...... 2021-10-20

本文是一篇加拿大留学生写的环境与经济发展方面的essay,热带森林成为人类砍伐的目标,这一开发过程是对热带雨林......

标签:热带雨林 过度采伐 加拿大essay 

[留学生怎么写essay]组织文...... 2021-10-19

什么是组织文化?对企业,它是如何影响?不同的方式来思考组织文化?在“文化的实用主义/机械论”的批评,作为一个组......

标签:组织文化 

[出国申请的essay要怎么写...... 2021-10-19

基因是DNA的片段,其提供了用于制备蛋白质的指示。这种蛋白质赋予生物体的特定性状或表型。遗传转化的字面意思......

标签:细菌转化 

[AcademicPhD怎么样]投资管理...... 2021-10-19

这是一篇留学生作业,主要讲述了投资管理中内在价值评估模型的对比,并对此进行了详细的对比分析。......

标签:valuation mo 估值模型 Free Cas 

[宾大 impa essay]代写essay:...... 2021-10-19

Individual Research Essay You are asked to produce an essay that addresses the following question: Consider a problem or opportunity concerning the Man......

标签:E-Bu 

[英语代写essay多少钱]欧美...... 2021-10-19

本文汇集了欧美留学生写论文常用的一些关系句式,对欧美留学生写作论文过程中如何熟练的利用各种递进,转折,......

标签:欧美留学生ESSAY 关系句式 

[申请美国硕士essay怎么写...... 2021-10-19

我并不是大牛,但也算是在外文期刊上发了几篇文章,现在我写文章2天可以写成,一周可以完稿。以前写的文章老是......

标签:

[留学生essay怎么写]Assess...... 2021-10-19

2000wordessay AssessthesignificanceoftheEnlightenmentinthedevelopmentofthescientificmethodofinquiry. Outram,D.(2005) TheEnlightenment .Cambridge:Cambri......

标签:Enlightenmen rancis Bacon Ren 

[美国研究生申请essay]牢记...... 2021-10-19

很多事情不做的时候总觉得很难,其实只要掌握了方法,就很简单,写论文也是一样,掌握具体步骤和流程,写论文......

标签:论文outline 写作技巧 essay outlin 

[essay-writing]critical essay写作...... 2021-10-19

Critical essay批判性论文是一种分析、解释和/或评估文本的学术写作形式。在一篇批评性文章中,作者就文本中如何传......

标签:Critical Essay 

[大学英语作文essay的格式...... 2021-10-19

本文是一片标准的essay格式范文,主要介绍了家庭在教育中的作用,强调了家庭教育对社会重要作用,了麦基弗理论和......

标签:家庭教育 Cambodia 文献综述 

[大学英语学术写作essay]如...... 2021-10-18

要想写出好的MBA论文,首先要就是要安排你的时间表,以下就是详细告诉你如何安排你的MBA论文写作。......

标签:MBA论文 论文指导 Mba Research 

[英语essay 开头结尾句]Wr...... 2021-10-18

Writing & Referencing-the difference between an Essay and a Report?......

标签:an Essay a Report Referencing 

[英国essay价格]代写财务报...... 2021-10-18

提供专业的财务报表作业写作指导-告诉您financial statement compares 如何制作收支平衡表(balance sheet)? A balance sheet s......

标签:balance shee 

[美国英语写作essay 格式...... 2021-10-18

核心提示:告知您如何写好财务分析?Financial analysis-Conducting statistical analysis Financial Analysis is an important function that......

标签:Financial an C 

[托福essay rating]怎么写RE...... 2021-10-18

怎么写REFERENCING?-In-text referencing is when you acknowledge – within the text you are writing referencing-referencing is when you acknowledge......

标签:referencing ac 

[澳洲essay代写价格]ESSAY ...... 2021-10-18

ESSAY OUTLINE(留学生ESSAY格式,留学生ASSIGNMENT格式)......

标签:ESSAY OUTLINE 

[如何写一篇英文essay]写作...... 2021-10-18

写作Essay......

标签:写作Essay 

[essay代写年轻人德国]利物...... 2021-10-18

专业科目Subject 题目:the link Between Monopolistic Competition and Normal Profits利物浦大学本科课程作业要求......

标签:利物浦大学 Essay assign 

[uci研究生申请 essay]代写英...... 2021-10-18

state which theory, in your opinion, best explains the FIN4507 Corporate Governance and Corporate Accountability PART I (Term 1) 1,Agency theory--Jen......

标签:strengths weaknesses theory go 

[留学中介essay]布拉德福德...... 2021-10-18

投资评估学布拉德福德大学:金融学讲座课件The investment appraisal learn Finance at the University of Bradford lectures courseware......

标签:投资评估 Introduction 

[英国essay代写]Strategic Ma...... 2021-10-17

本文是一篇Strategic Management的mba essay,从沃尔玛的合伙人,顾客,理念等各个方面分析了沃尔玛成功的原因,主要介绍......

标签:策略管理 沃尔玛 Sam Walton Pincipals 

[往届哈佛峰会essay例文]...... 2021-10-17

本文是一篇香港留学生的managment essay主要讲述了绩效管理的几个主要方面、解决缺勤问题的措施和导致劳动力流失的......

标签:执行力 绩效管理 expectations Perform 

[哥大erm 网申的essay]现代化...... 2021-10-17

本文是一篇加拿大essay,主要介绍了当代人文地理问题中的社会技术的纳入/排除,并将批判性地评估和检查这种现象......

标签:现代化 工业化 inequality socio-techn 

[如何写大学essay]电子购物...... 2021-10-17

在网络迅速发展的时代,电子商务对于企业发展起到了越来越重要的作用。但是,互联网时代,企业在电子商务方面......

标签:

[perfect essay]学生体验等级...... 2021-10-17

不同背景、不同年龄、不同年级的学生,对于学校的感受也是不同的。尽管如此,学生们的体验会产生交错,相互影......

标签:英国论文代写 学生体验研究 学生情绪管理 管理 

Get in Touch

微信在线咨询

微信在线咨询

添加微信:
支持语音、图文实时沟通

Email实时沟通

Email实时沟通

您也可以通过Email联系我们
邮箱:

自助提交订单

自助提交订单

登陆ESSAY写作官网
在线自助提交订单

essay代写网专注【海外留学生essay代写20年】essay辅导代写正规品牌【留学生代写essay靠谱机构】提供英文essay代写、英国代写essay、美国代写Assignment、澳洲report代写、加拿大代写paper、essay范文格式讲解、Assignment代写、代写report、paper代写、essay代写一般多少钱、essay代写招聘、essay代写靠谱吗、英国研究生essay代写、留学生代写平台等辅导代写服务