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摘要:本论文主要阐述了澳大利亚工党政府与反对党在处理环境问题与减少温室气体排放的问题上所采取的不同策略,并对......

澳大利亚工党政府与反对党
 

澳大利亚工党政府与反对党在应对气候变化和减少温室气体排放的问题上,采取了两种截然不同的策略。直接监管是联合政府和澳大利亚工党支持使用市场为基础的经济手段。直接监管几十年来一直处于环境法的首要部分,并构成了环境法律制度的核心(高登和皮尔);并且经济手段和科学的进展,揭示了复杂的环境问题和影响生态系统和气候的因素(阅读4)。本文的目的是提供一个关于经济手段的优点的比较概述,财政手段和收费制度和市场创造,反对直接调控决定哪些系统将更有效地减少澳大利亚的温室气体排放。经过对这两种机制广泛的检查,本文认为直接监管有必要确定和执行的环境条件和标准,减少温室气体排放。

 

The Australian Labor Government And Opposition 
 

The Australian Labor Government and Opposition have adopted two contrasting strategies in their approach to climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Direct Regulation is the proposed mechanism for the Coalition Government and the Australian Labor Party supports the use of Market-based Economic Instruments. Direct Regulation has been at the forefront of environmental law for decades and constitutes the heart of the environmental legal system (Godden and Peel), while Economic Instruments were developed in response to scientific progression revealing the complexity of environmental issues affecting ecosystems and climates (Reading 4). The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative overview on the merits of two Economic Instruments, Fiscal Instruments and Charging Systems and Market Creation against Direct Regulation to determine which system would be more effective at reducing Australia's greenhouse gas emissions. After extensive examination of both mechanisms this paper will argue that Direct Regulation suffers from a need to determine and enforce environmental conditions and standards in relation to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, it will also be argued that the carbon tax and emissions trading scheme will effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions by discouraging entities to pollute through increased costs of production and required carbon permits. The overall impact Economic Instruments and Direct Regulation have on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions however, is negatively impacted by the inclusion of perverse incentives that subsidise heavy polluters (reading 5).

 

Direct Regulation involves the enactment of laws set beside an environmental target, for example the reduction of emissions through improved technology, and subsequent penalties directly applied if a target is not adhered to (reading 5). This mechanism for the environmental protection is increasingly considered as out-dated and is progressively being replaced by Economic Instruments. Six economic instruments were analysed to gauge their effectiveness for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and revealed extensive legal frameworks for wide ranging environmental protection. For example, property-right mechanisms present an opportunity for people to conserve environmental resources through clear and enforceable property rights. Financial Instruments are suitable for mobilising supplementary financial resources for conservation and environmental protection. Liability Instruments impose civil liability and provide economic incentives to manage issues such as pollution and waste. Performance Bonds require a security deposit and will be refunded upon satisfactory completion of an environmental task. Deposit Refund Systems also require a security deposit and encourage the correct disposal of waste (Reading 5). These Instruments however, are not designed or suited for the specific task of reducing Australia's annual greenhouse gas emissions. Economic Instruments designed to tackle issues of climate change are Fiscal Instruments and Charging Systems, which encourages environmentally responsible behaviour through partial (or full) cost pricing (Carbon Tax) and Market Creation, which allows the Government to create a market such as Australia's proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS). Their effectiveness at reducing emissions, along with Direct Regulation is significantly related to incentives, monitoring approaches and environmental conditions and standards.

 

Environmental conditions and standards can designate a means that must be followed by the authorisation holder such as the use of pollution control technology. Alternatively to this is setting environmental outcomes that essentially need to be/can be achieved. The issue between these two options is that one is prescriptive while the other is outcome based and enforcing conditions on the basis of what is required presents an easier option compared to environmental outcome enforcement. The prescription option does suffer in that it is by no means as flexible as an outcome based model.

 

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