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不同的技术可以被应用于一个多维绩效模型中，这取决于价值的类型。因此，产品和服务效率被看作是测量酒店业质量的绩效指标。在20世纪80年代，许多招待公司被迫转变理念，从注重效率到更多重视客户的需求和满意度（PARASKEVAS，2001）。全面质量管理（TQM）被看作是一个众所周知的更好地描 述质量的概念。实际上，全面质量管理（TQM）是指一组管理和控制过程，其目的在于集中整个组织以提供最佳的产品或服务来满足客户（塔尔哈，2004）。 一个组织的文化是由全面质量管理（TQM）定义的，组织文化为通过不同的工具，技术和培训不断实现客户的满意度提供支持。这包括持续改进组织中的流程，从而获得高品质的产品和服务（撒斯特等，1993）。
The business environment is always changing and the demand for adaptability among organizations tends to increase. Demands for customers, technological development, change of value and globalization are factors that drive the need to change and develop an organisation (Bruzelius et al, 2004).
New techniques for organisations and managing companies have been introduced due to changes in the business environment during the past decades. These changes are mainly because of globalization and fierce competition. This is why, new performance techniques have been developed and introduced in order to fit market needs (Kald et al, 2000). Hence, the multi dimensional performance models were developed and introduced to organisations.
多维绩效模型——Multi dimension performance models.
The traditional performance systems rely only on financial measures. However, they don’t give enough information regarding the progress of the organisation which may eventually make top management to take wrong decisions (Dinesh et al, 1993). In order to overcome “singular” focusing, a “multi’ focused measurement system was introduced. The multi focused measurement does not consider financial but also non financial goals in terms of customer loyalty and satisfaction.
Different techniques can be used in a multi dimensional performance models depending on the type of value. As such, on type of measurement that has been viewed by hotels in terms of product and service efficiency is quality. In the 1980s, many hospitality firms were forced to shift from the idea of efficiency and put more importance to customer needs and satisfaction (Paraskevas, 2001). Total Quality Management (TQM) is seen as a well known concept which better describe quality. In fact, TQM refers to a set of management and control processes and was designed to focus an entire organisation on satisfying the customer, by providing products or services that provide the best possible job (Talha, 2004). The culture of an organisation is defined by TQM, and supports the constant attainment customer satisfaction through different tools, techniques and training. This includes continuous improvement of the processes in the organisation, resulting in high quality products and services (Sashkin et al, 1993).
Nowadays, the importance of quality is increasing. The economic conditions make it necessary for all organisations to review and closely control costs and expenditures. In order to achieve competitive advantage and efficiency, organisations have to find profitable ways to differentiate themselves (Wong and Dean, 1999). There are many different strategies which a business can make used in order to reach success and the delivery of high service quality is considered vital especially during time of fierce competition. Today, quality has become one of the main objectives of many firms because service quality is considered as a key factor that leads to significant strategic advantages (Erstad, 2001). Many empirical studies have been conducted on service quality. According to these researches, service quality has a positive impact on the organisation’s performance and competitive position. Although many researches have been conducted on service quality, the hospitality sector has been receiving modest interest (Harrington & Akehurst, 1996; Sila & Ebrahimpour, 2002).
Service quality is a pivotal part of business, which makes it important to correctly and properly measure and research its effectiveness. However, in order to measure, it is necessarily to define service quality. In addition, significant dimensions of service quality in the hospitality sector should be taken into consideration.
Quality should be the concern of everyone and must be correctly structured within an organization to create these conditions. The emphasis on improving quality must take place throughout all phases of the business and is not just in the operational side, that is, marketing design, development, delivery, purchasing and service support. The quality achievement must be externally customer and not internally company driven, and be supported by the appropriate use technology, quality measurement and control processes.
The sustaining of quality improvements needs to be based on the participation and contribution of the whole workhorse, not just a group of specialists. Organizations must establish clear customer orientated quality management systems, the understanding, ownership and development of which should be vested in everyone concerned. The management system must make it simple for customers to give feedback and quality improvements must close the loop.
2.2 全面质量管理——2.2 Total Quality Management
The introduction of any service quality management system to the hospitality industry must by definition from the analysis be total and this has provided the drive towards total quality management (TQM). Quality management systems by themselves will fail unless they are part of a planned process of introduction involving the whole organization. TQM is not just a system but a state of mind that must become corporate culture if it is to succeed. The emphasis here is that TQM within the hospitality industry must shift the focus of management to satisfying the customers’ needs and holds that change is inevitable within the organization. Characteristics of the TQM system include the understanding that quality is neither technical function nor department but a systematic process extending throughout an organization.
2.2.1 全面质量管理的定义——2.2.1 TQM Definitions
The definitions of TQM are as follows:
TQM seeks to improve product and service quality and increase customer satisfaction by restructuring traditional management practices (General Accounting Office, 1991).
TQM is a management approach for an organisation, centered on quality, based on participation of all its members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction and benefits all members of the organisation and society (International Organisation for Standardization, 2007).
A philosophy and a set of concepts employed throughout an organisation by individuals in concern with a view towards continually improving the product or service provided to customers (Mellan, 1993).
Total quality is defined as the unrelenting pursuit of continuous improvement, which is realized by assessing and utilizing the concerted knowledge and experience of managers and employees at all levels (Kossoff, 1993).
Eventually, TQM is about developing a unique model, reflecting the business ethics and purpose of the organisation.
2.2.2 全面质量管理的原则——2.2.2 Principles of TQM
What exactly constitutes TQM can be a matter of controversy, depending on which quality proponent one identifies with. The quality concepts have been characterized by purists. However, there is disagreement regarding some characteristics of quality. One main characteristics of TQM philosophy is that it emphasizes prevention rather than a detection approach to the service or product. According to Sila and Ebrahimpour  research on quality, they identified different pivotal principles of TQM. These principles can be classified as follows:
Customer focus: is when an organisation embracing the principles of TQM, both actions and functions are designed to meet customers’ needs who also determine their value. As a matter of fact, this will create a long term relationship as customer satisfaction relates to keeping customers and gaining market share.
Customer satisfaction: is the degree to which customers are satisfied with the current product lines which an organisation is offering. As such, loyal customers will refuse competitors’ offering.
Employee training: is an important aspect of TQM. This is so, because employees must be equipped with necessarily knowledge and skills so as to enable them to cope with problems solving, self management and self control in task completing.
Teamwork: means the participation of employees and is considered as the bottom line of a TQM process. Employees should assume responsibilities to achieve quality in accomplishing their task and at the same time participate in the process of continuous improvement. Participation can improve quality in terms of self inspection, which decrease inspective costs and encourage employees to work effectively through problem solving techniques or by means of employees’ motivation and creativity.
Continuous improvement and motivation: is one of the core concepts of TQM. In short it is based on a commitment to ongoing process revision, both administrative and technical directed at improving the process.
Top management and Leadership: direct the entire total quality process at creating values, setting goals and developing systems designed to meet customer expectations and to improve organizational performance.
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