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时间:2021-10-27 09:07 来源: Essay代写

摘要:影响公共的公共不法行为 无论是扬声器发出的噪声还是挖倔道路的噪声[1],公共妨害的发生是多方面的。从不必要的......

Public Wrongful Acts Affecting Public Law Essay

影响公共的公共不法行为

 

无论是扬声器发出的噪声还是挖倔道路的噪声[1],公共妨害的发生是多方面的。从不必要的以及不断鸣喇叭、遮挡阳光的公共公园来看,干扰贯穿了我们生活,成为了一个巨大的范围。而早前,扰民索赔普遍实行由个人赔偿损失,公共妨害通过集体诉讼和公益诉讼来解决在印度方面是一个相对较新的附加事物。但我们必须认识到,保护环境不是一个在教育、社会繁荣、控制和处理有毒废物以及政府管制污染产业的一时行动,它是面向公众的利益的[2]。但是印度社会对于最大的社会公害问题以及环境恶化完全不敏感,这些问题被大多数人所忽视,只有一些热心公益的人承担在自己保护环境的这个责任。公共利益诉讼(以下简称PILs)已经成为一种工具,使法律的车轮运作起来,以可持续的环境为目标发生效用。

 

Whether it is the noise of the loudspeakers or the dug up roads [1] , the occurrences of public nuisance are numerous. Unnecessary and incessant honking of horns to blocking the sun in a public park, the concept of nuisance is spanned in a vast sphere of our lives. While earlier, nuisance claims were generally instituted by individuals for damages, public nuisance claims through class litigation and public interest litigations are a relatively new addition in the Indian context. It has to be realized that Environment protection is not a pre-occupation of the educated and the affluent and the disposal and control of toxic waste and governmental regulation of polluting industries is public interest oriented [2] . It is nothing but immense insensitivity of the Indian society that the biggest issue of public nuisance, environment-deterioration, goes unnoticed by most of the people, save a few public spirited people, who take up this responsibility of preserving the environment upon themselves. Public interest litigations (hereinafter PILs) have emerged as an instrument to set the wheels into action and work towards a sustainable environment.

 

The present paper proceeds in two parts. Part I deals with the concept of public nuisance for the purpose of section 91 of the Code of Civil Procedure 1908. It discusses at length the procedural of a claim for public nuisance as enlisted in section 91, supported with case laws. Further, it discusses various legal remedies available in a nuisance claim. Part II aims to illuminate the concept of public nuisance with special focus on the spate of litigation directed towards the preservation of environment through the instrument of PILs( public interest litigation).

 

THE CONCEPT OF NUISANCE IN INDIAN JURISPRUDENCE.

 

Like major other fields in civil jurisprudence, India borrowed the concept of nuisance from Common Law. Before the conceptualization of the Code of Civil Procedure in 1908, the liabilities incurred in the offence of nuisance emanated from the common law interpretation of ‘civil wrongs’ that imposed a tortious liability on the wrong-doer. This tortious liability was a capable ground for claiming damages for the injury caused due to the prevalence of the cause of nuisance for a considerable span of time. Therefore, the concept of nuisance is not statutorily developed in the Indian civil jurisprudence. However, through a spate of adjudication on the same, as well as elaborated criminal interpretation of nuisance as well as its application in tort law has given it a definite dimension.

 

There is no universally accepted definition on nuisance. In fact the term ‘nuisance’ is incapable of an exact definition. But its concept is well understood. There must be interference with the use or enjoyment of land, or some right over or in connection with it, causing damage to the plaintiff [3] . Halsbury defines it as an injury to the right of a person in possession of property to undisturbed enjoyment of it and results from an improper use by another of his own property [4] . According to Blackstone, it is something that “worketh hurt, inconvenience or damage”. [5] The act must result into both danger and injury to cause an actionable nuisance. Acts which seriously interfere with the health, safety, comfort or convenience of the public generally or which tend to degrade public morals have always been considered public nuisances [6] and wrongful acts affecting public. Speaking generally, such acts arise from callous disregard of other people’s welfare and interest.

 

Nuisance can be broadly classified into two categories: private nuisance and public nuisance.

 

Private nuisance: Nuisance in its conventional sense refers to the offence of private nuisance emanating from the customary right to enjoyment of one’s own property without interruption to the extent that the rights of another do not stand to be abridged in the course. Reasonableness plays a crucial role in deciding whether an act constitutes actionable nuisance or not. [7] Since private nuisance is categorically the nuisance caused to individual and not the public at large, it cannot be made the subject of an indictment. However, it can constitute a sufficient cause of action of a civil suit claiming damages and injunction [8] .

 

Public nuisance: Public nuisance has not categorically been defined in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. However, for the purpose of adjudication of the cause, the definition has been borrowed from section 268 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860. According to section 268, a person is guilty of a public nuisance who does any act or is guilty of an illegal omission which causes any common injury, danger or annoyance to the public or to the people in general who dwell or occupy property in the vicinity, or which must necessarily cause injury, obstruction, danger or annoyance to persons who may have occasion to use any public right [9] .

 

The distinction between private and public nuisance is a matter of fact and not law and can collapse in situations where the right being violated is a public right but the injury is caused to an individual and not the public at large. In many cases it essentially is a question of degree [10] . An example of such a situation is obstruction of a highway affecting houses adjacent to it. In such cases, even though the number of people being affected is not large, the right being violated is public in nature. Unlike private nuisance, public nuisance does not consider easement rights as acceptable defence for nuisance. Merely the fact that the cause of nuisance has been in existence for a long time does not bar any challenge against it as no length of time can legalize a public nuisance. [11]

 

PUBLIC NUISANCE IN CPC

 

Public nuisance derives support from section 91 of CPC that lays down the procedure for initiation of a civil suit for the offense of public nuisance. Being purely procedural, the section gives the flexibility of seeking parallel remedies in criminal jurisdiction or damages under law of torts. The marginal note of section 91 reads: public nuisance and other wrongful acts affecting the public. Inclusion of ‘other wrongful acts affecting public’ besides public nuisance widens the scope of the section to incorporate various situations which although do not fall under the accepted straitjacket definitions of nuisance, yet are a cause of discomfort and inconvenience to the public. For instance, courts have read slaughtering of cattle on a public street [12] or encroachment upon a public street by construction of buildings [13] as legitimate cause of action for a claim for public nuisance by the virtue of it being a wrongful act against public.

 

Section 91 of CPC [14] states that

 

(1) In the case of a public nuisance the Advocate General or two or more persons having obtained the consent in writing of the Advocate General, may institute a suit, though no special damage has been caused, for a declaration and injunction or for such other relief as may be appropriate to the circumstances of the case.

 

(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to limit or otherwise affect any right of suit which may exist independently of its provisions.

 

As per the General Clauses Act 1897 [15] , the definition of nuisance for the purpose of section 91, CPC has to be borrowed from section 268 [16] IPC. The definition of nuisance excludes from its ambit the instances of legalized nuisance. Legalized nuisance are cases when the nuisance cause is statutorily approved and in the interest of greater good and social welfare. For instance, the running of railway engines and trains or establishment of the yard, despite being a legitimate cause of nuisance, is not punishable under IPC or a valid ground for invoking Section 91. [17]

 

Though much hasn’t been said about the inclusion of clause 1 in section 91, it is believed that inclusion of the Advocate General as the initiator of the suit for public nuisance was to act as a safety check arrangement to the expansive and broad definition of nuisance and the subjectivity of ‘wrongful acts against the public’. Later, by the 1976 amendment, the provision of two or more persons filing a suit for public nuisance with the consent of the advocate general was added to section 91. Such active involvement of the Advocate General in public nuisance suits was to ensure that suits are not initiated with malicious intentions, with the sole purpose of creating impediments for the party alleged with causing nuisance. This rule however does not extend to representative cases when a member of the community whose rights are being restricted by the act of public nuisance files the claim. In such suits, the leave of the court is not necessary. Even in cases when certain rights are provided to the entire community, but immediate damage by the nuisance occurs to an individual, leave of court is not mandatory. [18]

本文标签: 公共管理public law公共不法行为

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