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时间:2021-10-27 14:00 来源: Essay代写

摘要:本论文介绍了近几年全球女性在高管阶层取得很大的地位提升,但是成就并没有很明显。从而阐述了这一现象的原因......

在过去的几十年里,尽管女性在提升队伍管理方面取得了斐然的进步,但是大家普遍认为她们在这方面所取得的成绩无法与在教育、事业领域所取得的成就相提并论。在许多国家,在董事会任职的女性数量一直是少数,尽管有一半的劳动力是由女性构成的。坎特认为与男性相比,女性被分配到更不重要的职位和部门。在大部分国家,在管理阶层,男性数量远超过女性。近年来,在一些发展中国家,许多机构向女性敞开了大门,但是在大多数情况下,她们处于较低或中间管理级别。沃思发现在被调查的41个国家中,有将近一半的国家,在立法机构、高级官员和管理阶层,女性典型地占到百分之二十到百分之三十。布鲁斯特等人指出在英国,女性在执行董事仅占百分之二,在非执行董事会中占百分之十。在一些国家,例如,在希腊,公司并不对女性开放大门,只有极少数努力通过它们要求的女性攀上了管理阶层的上端。在一小部分国家,如朝鲜和斯里兰卡,在立法机构、高级官员和管理阶层,女性连十分之一都没有占到。根据美国研究表明,在26个非洲国家里,女性在管理和行政部门平均任职率为百分之十五。在法国,2000年,在国内一百强企业中高管里女性仅占百分之五点三。在澳大利亚的200强企业中,女性在董事会占据百分之八点六。2009年3月份地国际商务报道表明,中国女性在高级职位中占了百分之三十一。尽管全球数据表明,女性将继续保持在管理职位的上升趋势,但是成就率却很低。看起来实际就业男性更受欢迎。

 

In the last several decades, although women have made considerable progress in ascending to management ranks, it is generally acknowledged that the rate of their advancement has not kept pace with their increasing educational achievements and career commitments (Ruderman, 1996). In many countries the number of women at board level is minimal, though almost half the workforce is made up by women. Kanter (1977) indicates that women are assigned to less critical positions and divisions than men. In most of countries there are much more men in top level management than women. In some developed countries, many organisations have opened the doors to women in recent years, but in most cases have kept them in the lower or middle-level managerial ranks. Wirth (2001) finds that in nearly half of the 41 investigated countries, women typically hold between 20 and 30 percent of legislative, senior official and managerial positions. Brewster et al. (2008) find out that in the UK women comprise only 2 percent of executive directors and 10 percent of non-executive directors. In some countries, for example, in Greece the corporate doors have not opened to women and only an extremely small number of the women who have managed to pass through them have advanced to the upper levels of the managerial ladder. In a few countries, such as the Republic of Korea and SriLanka, women hold less than 10 percent of legislative, senior official and managerial positions. According to the United Nations (2000) of USA, women’s participation in management and administrative positions averages 15 percent across 26 African countries. In France, women occupied 5.3 percent of the top positions in the top 200 companies in 2000 (ILO, 2004). Among Australia’s top 200 companies, women hold 8.6 percent of board positions (Equal Opportunity for Women in the Workplace Agency, 2004). International business report in March 2009 shows that in China women hold 31 percent in senior positions. Although global data show that women continue to increase their share of managerial positions, the rate of progress is slow. It seems that employment practices still favour men over women.

 

While considering about the reasons why this situation exists, there may be many different answers. Investigation Report on the Status of Current Chinese Youth Population (2008) indicates that until 2007 men are 18 million more than women in China. The 2008 world factbook (CIA, 2008) shows that total population of India is 1.06 (male/female); Egypt is 1.02.; Sudan is 1.03. And the world sex ratio is 1.01. So the situation that there are more men in senior management seems to be consequent because of more men in the world. Unbalanced sex ratio is considered to be one of the reasons. Victoria (2001) points out that the need to actually strive and reach the top for the sake of being at the top, the prestige, respect, awe, power it gives may be more important for men than women. The attitude between men and women is different. More women than men may be content to know that they have done a good job, to be appreciated and feel that they have contributed to society at the level they are at rather than be at the top. Men need to be “on top” to be fulfilled. The ambition of men is normally much stronger than women, so that it could continuously keep men on moving into top level. Another reason is the factor of culture. According to different countries, the culture is quite different. In the past time, especially in Asia and Africa area, in most of countries women had less positions and authorities than men. Even until now, in most parts of Africa, there are many countries in which men could marry more than one woman legally. It means women are treated unequally in some countries even now. In those countries, it is certainly that employment practices favour men over women. While following the history river, the culture is deeply influencing the people. People are “forced” in a certain norm that could not be easily broken up because of that the culture affects all aspects of the country, including employment practices. In following part, it would debate the extent culture impacts on employment practices and draw comparisons between China and UK.

 

Before doing comparisons of the extent culture impacting on employment practices, it is necessary to analyze the data including demographics and national history in order to understand well the culture between UK and China. According to the data from CIA for recent six years from 2003 to 2008 , China population is almost 1,330 million, and the total land area is 9,326,410 sq km. UK population is almost 61 million, and the land area is 241,590 sq km. China is still considered to be the big country of population, and the total number of men is more than women. Oppositely, in the UK there are more women than men.  And the male ratio of China in that age bracket is more than UK. Normally, the age bracket is considered to be the workforce age. Therefore, it seems to be natural that both in China and UK there are more men than women in workforce. But does that mean men should meet with great favour as a matter of course? In order to find out the accurate answer, it is necessary to analyze the current status within using the fresh and correct data.

 

Farrell (2005) finds out that men are more popular when employer pays the same salary. Employers consider that men are physical strong and could be put into the serious situation; at least men can do quite a lot of manual labour. In China, the number of labour force in agriculture is 43% . According to that, in Chinese agriculture, it still needs many physical labours, such as ploughing and sowing because of that there are no advanced agricultural machines in some parts of China. Therefore, men are more popular in those places. In the UK the main labour force is in services, but within considering about the main UK industries, there are followings: machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods. In these industries, obviously men are more welcome than women.

 

Harkness (1996) indicates that in the UK the pay gap has been closing, and the New Earnings Survey reports a rise in the ratio of median hourly pay of full-time women to men from 65 percent in 1970 to 73 percent in 1976 and a more gradual increase thereafter to 80 percent in 1994. In contrast, the relative earnings position of women working part-time has changed little for over two decades. But until now men are being paid significantly more on average than women in Britain. A recent study by Accenture (2006) in six countries including UK, reveals that women’s representation at the executive management level of organisations does not exceed 13 percent and that the “glass ceiling” is prevalent across all six countries, but varies in thickness. In the younger age groups, men are clearly pulling ahead of women in terms of career.

 

In the UK, for those aged 30 and under, 51 percent of women are still working as non-managerial employees, compared with 47 percent of men (Lyonette, 2008). This difference begins to widen significantly in the next age bracket and continues to do so in the older age brackets. This analysis demonstrates that, although women start out in employment on a relatively equal footing with men, proportionately, they fail to reach the most senior levels. Previous qualitative research (Twomey et al., 2002) finds out that many young women in accountancy field, on considering the impact of work on family, may be satisfied with the level they have reached and not pursue promotion; others may even leave the profession altogether. Lewis (2007) finds evidence of an emerging new culture or “counterculture”, arising mainly from younger employees. However, she adds that some senior managers were recognising the different approach coming from the younger employees and seeing the advantages of adapting to more focused ways of working, even though their views still tended to be gender blind.

本文标签: managementsex discrimi

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