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摘要:外观的描述语Descriptive expression描述性的表达式 下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文-- Descriptive expression,文章讲述在当今世界和社会中,存在着一个相当普遍和明显的现象,越来越多的人倾......

外观的描述语 Descriptive expression 描述性的表达式

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文 -- Descriptive expression,文章讲述在当今世界和社会中,存在着一个相当普遍和明显的现象,越来越多的人倾向于在日常交流中使用描述性语法表达而不是描述性表达,这肯定是语言发展的必然趋势,对现有的所谓标准语法产生巨大影响。经过教授的演讲,我对什么是描述论和什么是处方主义有了更好的理解,这在语言学领域是对立的。尽管有许多知识渊博的学者,政治家和其他一些精英团体不遗余力地促进规定主义,但我仍然是一个激进的描述主义者。

Below for everyone to sort out a good essay, write the model essay - Descriptive expression, the article in today's world and society, there is a quite common and obvious phenomenon, more and more people tend to use Descriptive grammar expression in daily communication rather than Descriptive expression, this must be the inevitable developing trend of language, have a huge impact to the existing of the so-called standard grammar. After the professor's lecture, I have a better understanding of what is descriptivism and what is prescriptivism, which are opposites in linguistics. Despite the efforts of many knowledgeable scholars, politicians, and other elite groups to promote prescriptivism, I am still a radical descriptivist.

 
Descriptive expression

In today’s world and society, there is a pretty general and obvious phenomenon that more and more people are inclined to use descriptive grammatical expressions rather than prescriptive ones in their daily communication, which is sure to be an inevitable trend in the development of language, imposing enormous impact on the existing so-called standard grammar. After the lecture given by the professor, I have a better understanding of what is descriptivism and what is prescriptivism, which are posed as polar opposites in the field of linguistics. In spite of the fact that a large number of knowledgeable scholars, politicians and some other elite groups spare no efforts to promote prescriptivism, I am still a radical descriptivist. Descriptivism is sure to be far more tenable than prescriptivism and my arguments go as follows:

描述性的表达式
 
 
 
在当今世界和社会,有一个漂亮的将军和明显的现象,越来越多的人倾向于使用描述性语法表达式而不是规定性的日常沟通,这肯定会是一个必然趋势发展的语言,施加巨大的影响现有的所谓的标准语法。在教授的讲座之后,我对什么是描述主义,什么是规定主义有了更好的理解,这是语言学领域的两个对立的两极。尽管有一大批知识渊博的学者、政治家等精英团体不遗余力地宣扬规范主义,但我仍然是一个激进的描述主义者。描述主义肯定比规定主义更站得住脚,我的论点如下:

Firstly, from my perspective, I think descriptive grammatical expressions are more natural than prescriptive ones. As is known, language is supposed to be a natural flow of one’s mind and feelings. It seems not wise for the small group of linguists or rather scholars to confine that natural flow into an enclosing frame of grammar without flexibility or change. Language is created by our ancestors, by humans. The idea of that group of scholars who have prescribed all the grammatical rules cannot represent that of people from all over the world. Sometimes prescriptivism might just hinder our communications in our daily life, which can be exemplified by my own experience. As an international student from China, I have always been introduced to prescriptive English. Under that cramming system, we Chinese students are constantly stuffed with all those dogmatic grammar rules which sometimes cannot even justify themselves. From the day I was exposed to English, I have been told to recite all the boring and rigid stuff. Without a proper environment where we can practice oral English, all we can do after years of English study is read, write and listen but not speak. When I first came to L.A., I found it so tough for me to communicate with the locals, because they talk in a very natural and casual way while I had to think twice to make sure my expressions were right before saying something. I had long been at a loss, without any idea of how to speak myself out. To some degrees, I think such language barrier is partially what results in us Chinese students keeping silent in and outside the classroom and even ostracizing the introverted from the colorful campus life. The essence of language is communication. With so many grammatical rules to adhere to, language is in a sense more of a burden than what it carries, especially for those non-native speakers.

首先,从我的角度来看,我认为描述性语法表达比规范性语法表达更自然。众所周知,语言应该是一个人的思想和感情的自然流动。对于少数语言学家或学者来说,将这种自然的流动限制在一个没有灵活性或变化的语法框架中,似乎是不明智的。语言是由我们的祖先,人类创造的。那群规定了所有语法规则的学者的想法不能代表世界各地人们的想法。有时候,规范主义可能会阻碍我们在日常生活中的交流,我自己的经历就是一个例子。作为一名来自中国的国际学生,我经常接触规范性英语。在那种死记硬背的体制下,我们中国学生总是塞满了那些教条式的语法规则,有时甚至无法为自己辩护。从接触英语的那一天起,我就被要求背诵所有枯燥死板的东西。如果没有一个合适的环境来练习口语,那么经过多年的英语学习,我们所能做的只能是读、写、听,而不能说。刚来洛杉矶的时候,我发现和当地人交流很困难,因为他们说话很自然,很随意,而我在说话之前要仔细考虑自己的表达是否正确。我一直不知所措,不知道该如何把自己说出来。在某种程度上,我认为这种语言障碍是导致我们中国学生在课堂内外保持沉默,甚至排斥内向的人远离丰富多彩的校园生活的部分原因。语言的本质是交际。由于要遵守这么多语法规则,语言在某种意义上比它所承载的更像是一种负担,尤其是对那些非母语人士来说。

Aside from the naturalness of descriptivism, its flexibility to change with the times and society is helpful in gathering an increasing number of supporters while at the mean time, prescriptivism stays nearly the same. People should not fail to notice that there are many humorous online catchphrases gaining ever-increasing popularity with their vivid and clear expression of a certain meaning. Take a look at several popular buzz words. The most widespread and famous one is perhaps “You can you up, no can no BB” and it means if you think you can do something, you can just go straight and then do it. But if you are incapable of doing that, you had better shut up and stop making judgments about others. Nowadays more and more people start using it and it soon becomes a symbol of fashion words and can find its appearance in a great many occasions. But if we analyze this expression in the terms of prescriptive grammar, it is safe to say that this expression is one hundred percent wrong or improper. On one hand, the word “up” is used in this expression as a verb, but based on the prescriptive grammar rules, “up” can be used as an adverb, a preposition or an adjective but not a verb. The property or characteristic of a word and complete sentence structure serve as a pretty critical role in linguistics. On the other hand, the last word “BB” is, in prescriptive terms, sure to fall into the category of vulgarity and indecency. Regardless of all those dogmatic prescriptive grammar rules, such expressions begin to sprout like mushrooms and impose profound influence in the field of linguistics. Another example might just do as well in exemplifying the adaptation to change of descriptivism, that is, another online catchphrase “NO ZUO NO DIE”, which can find more and more users in China, especially among the youngsters. For instance, nearly all my friends in China frequently use this expression in daily chat. It is Chinlish and it means if you do not trouble trouble, trouble will not trouble you. Despite that it disagrees with prescriptive grammar rules, it is now widely used and entails a sense of humor and it can be easily understood. In this way, descriptivism can make a great contribution to the diversity of language, enriching the world’s culture.

 
除了描述主义的自然性外,它随时代和社会变化的灵活性有助于聚集越来越多的支持者,而规定主义则几乎保持不变。人们应该注意到,有很多幽默的网络流行语越来越受欢迎,它们生动、清晰地表达了一定的意思。来看看几个流行的流行语吧。流传最广、最著名的一句可能是“You can You up, no can no BB”,意思是如果你认为你能做某件事,你可以直接去做。但如果你不能做到这一点,你最好闭上嘴,停止对他人的评判。现在越来越多的人开始使用它,它很快就成为时尚词的象征,可以在很多场合找到它的出现。但是,如果我们从规定语法的角度来分析这个表达方式,就可以有把握地说,这个表达方式是百分之百错误的或不恰当的。一方面,单词“up”在这个表达中作为动词使用,但根据语法规则,“up”可以用作副词、介词或形容词,但不能用作动词。一个词的性质或特征和完整的句子结构在语言学中起着非常重要的作用。另一方面,最后一个词“BB”,在规定的条件下,肯定属于粗俗和不雅的范畴。尽管存在着条条框框式的语法规则,但这种表达方式却如雨后春笋般涌现出来,并在语言学领域产生了深远的影响。另一个例子或许可以很好地说明如何适应描述主义的变化,那就是另一个网络流行语“不作死不死”,这句话在中国有越来越多的用户,尤其是在年轻人中。例如,几乎我所有的中国朋友在日常聊天中都经常使用这个表达。这是中国式英语,意思是如果你不找麻烦,麻烦就不会来找你。尽管它与规定的语法规则不一致,但它现在被广泛使用,而且需要一种幽默感,也很容易理解。描述主义为促进语言的多样性,丰富世界文化做出了巨大的贡献。

Last but not least, according to what professor states in the lecture, descriptivism makes no value judgments, which is consistent with the universal call for equality where cultural equality or rather language equality constitutes a substantial part. If we subjectively assume that the standard language with prescriptive rules is better and more proper, then a set of quantified criteria should be made public and let the public make the decision. But it is not the case at all. Everyone knows language is created by mankind, but what language is better and more proper is decided by a small group of scholars. And once they decide what is better, then what about other forms of language. Prescriptivism is often associated with being educated, being decent. In essence, that practice in itself is prejudice. How can we attain universal equality when we have inequality in language? Let’s take Mark Twain’s novel the adventures of Huckleberry Finn as an example. We will never fail to notice that Mark Twain uses a lot of African American slang and strong accents, like
‘what do dey stan’ for? I’se gwyne to tell you. When I got all wore out wid work, en wid de callin’for you, en went to sleep, my heart wuz mos’broke bekase you wuz los’, en I didn’t k’yer no’ mo’ what become er me ende raf’. (Twain, p.302)
If American standard English is the benchmark, should our famed writer Mark Twain be prejudiced? Should we deduce that his language is inferior to others’? The answer is obvious.
My enduring exposure to prescriptive English grammar has taught me a lesson during my study in L.A. Having been incapable of fluent and effective communication with native speakers, I started to reflect on this problem. Listed above are three apparent advantages or merits of descriptivism. Language is largely about communication while prescriptivism is to some extent a departure from the essence of a language. But being a radical descriptivist does not necessarily mean a full denial of the merits of prescriptivism, which might make global communication more convenient and efficient with a set of fixed and prescriptive grammatical rules guiding them in terms of phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. But descriptivism is not only an edge over prescriptivism; it is the inevitable trend in linguistics in the days to come.

 
最后但并非最不重要的是,根据教授在讲座中所说的,描述主义不做价值判断,这与普遍要求平等的呼声是一致的,其中文化平等或更确切地说,语言平等是相当重要的一部分。如果我们主观地认为带有规定性规则的标准语言更好、更恰当,那么就应该公开一套量化的标准,让公众来做决定。但事实并非如此。每个人都知道语言是人类创造的,但是哪种语言更好更合适,只有一小群学者决定。一旦他们确定了哪种语言更好,那么其他语言形式又如何呢?规定主义通常与受过教育、举止得体联系在一起。从本质上讲,这种做法本身就是一种偏见。当语言不平等时,我们如何才能实现普遍的平等?让我们以马克·吐温的小说《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》为例。我们一定会注意到马克·吐温使用了很多非裔美国俚语和浓重的口音,比如
 
"它们有什么用? "我来告诉你。当我工作累得筋疲力尽,喊你的时候,我就睡着了。我的心都快碎了,因为你不见了。(p.302吐温)
 
如果以美国标准英语为基准,我们的著名作家马克·吐温是否应该有偏见?我们应该推断出他的语言不如别人吗?答案是显而易见的。
 
在洛杉矶的学习过程中,规范的英语语法给我上了一课。在与母语为英语的人进行流利有效的交流时,我开始反思这个问题。以上列出了描述主义的三个明显优势或优点。语言在很大程度上是关于交流的,而规定主义在某种程度上偏离了语言的本质。但是,激进的描述主义者并不意味着完全否定规定主义的优点,在一套固定的、规定性的语法规则的指导下,在音韵、形态、句法和语义方面,可能会使全球交流更加方便和有效。但描述主义不仅是规定主义的一个优势;这是今后语言学发展的必然趋势。
 
 
 Works Cited
[1] Mark Twain. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Classics of World Literature. Portugal. Atlantico Press, 2013: 302.
作品的引用
 
[1]马克吐温。《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》,世界文学经典。葡萄牙。亚特兰蒂斯出版社,2013:302。

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